Law-Conscious for All

We are for all, All are for us; to rebuild a peaceful social LIFE everywhere in the world/universe improving physical, mental +spiritual Health. This following simplified version of the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been created especially for young people.
 

1. We Are All Born Free & Equal:

We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way.

2. Don’t Discriminate:

These rights belong to everybody, whatever our differences.

3. The Right to Life:

We all have the right to life, and to live in freedom and safety.

 

4. No Slavery:

Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make anyone our slave. 

5. No Torture:

Nobody has any right to hurt us or to torture us. 

6. You Have Rights No Matter Where You Go:

I am a person just like you! 

7. We’re All Equal Before the Law:

The law is the same for everyone. It must treat us all fairly. 

8. Your Human Rights Are Protected by Law:

We can all ask for the law to help us when we are not treated fairly. 

9. No Unfair Detainment:

Nobody has the right to put us in prison without good reason and keep us there, or to send us away from our country. 

10. The Right to Trial:

If we are put on trial this should be in public. The people who try us should not let anyone tell them what to do. 

11. We’re Always Innocent Till Proven Guilty:

Nobody should be blamed for doing something until it is proven. When people say we did a bad thing we have the right to show it is not true. 

12. The Right to Privacy:

Nobody should try to harm our good name. Nobody has the right to come into our home, open our letters, or bother us or our family without a good reason. 

13. Freedom to Move:

We all have the right to go where we want in our own country and to travel as we wish. 

14. The Right to Seek a Safe Place to Live:

If we are frightened of being badly treated in our own country, we all have the right to run away to another country to be safe. 

15. Right to a Nationality:

We all have the right to belong to a country.

16. Marriage and Family:

Every grown-up has the right to marry and have a family if they want to. Men and women have the same rights when they are married, and when they are separated.

17. The Right to Your Own Things:

Everyone has the right to own things or share them. Nobody should take our things from us without a good reason.

18. Freedom of Thought:

We all have the right to believe in what we want to believe, to have a religion, or to change it if we want.

19. Freedom of Expression:

We all have the right to make up our own minds, to think what we like, to say what we think, and to share our ideas with other people.

20. The Right to Public Assembly:

We all have the right to meet our friends and to work together in peace to defend our rights. Nobody can make us join a group if we don’t want to.

21. The Right to Democracy:

We all have the right to take part in the government of our country. Every grown-up should be allowed to choose their own leaders.

22. Social Security:

We all have the right to affordable housing, medicine, education, and childcare, enough money to live on and medical help if we are ill or old.

23. Workers’ Rights:

Every grown-up has the right to do a job, to a fair wage for their work, and to join a trade union.

24. The Right to Play: ...

We all have the right to rest from work and to relax.

25. Food and Shelter for All:

We all have the right to a good life. Mothers and children, people who are old, unemployed or disabled, and all people have the right to be cared for.

26. The Right to Education:

Education is a right. Primary school should be free. We should learn about the United Nations and how to get on with others. Our parents can choose what we learn.

27. Copyright:

Copyright is a special law that protects one’s own artistic creations and writings; others cannot make copies without permission. We all have the right to our own way of life and to enjoy the good things that art, science and learning bring.

28. A Fair and Free World:

There must be proper order so we can all enjoy rights and freedoms in our own country and all over the world.

29. Responsibility:

We have a duty to other people, and we should protect their rights and freedoms.

30. No One Can Take Away Your Human Rights:

By this law--- we are for all, all are for us; we are all friend by the touch of Humanism--no force. We obey & dignify all                without any terms of evilness.

 

 

Lawis a system of rules and guidelines, usually enforced through a set of institutions.[5] It shapes politics,economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people.Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading on derivatives marketsProperty lawdefines rights and obligations related to the transfer and title of personal and real propertyTrust law applies to assets held for investment and financial security, while tort law allows claims for compensation if a person's rights or property are harmed. If the harm is criminalised in a statute, criminal law offers means by which the state can prosecute the perpetrator. Constitutional law provides a framework for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election of political representatives. Administrative law is used to review the decisions of government agencies, while international law governs affairs between sovereign statesin activities ranging from trade to environmental regulation or military action.

 

Legal systems elaborate rights and responsibilities in a variety of ways. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, which codify their laws, and common law systems, where judge made law is not consolidated. In some countries, religion informs the law. Law provides a rich source of scholarly inquiry, into legal historyphilosophyeconomic analysis or sociology. Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness and justice. "In its majestic equality", said the author Anatole France in 1894, "the law forbids rich and poor alike to sleep under bridges, beg in the streets and steal loaves of bread."[6] In a typical democracy, the central institutions for interpreting and creating law are the three main branches ofgovernment, namely an impartial judiciary, a democratic legislature, and an accountable executive. To implement and enforce the law and provide services to the public, a government's bureaucracy, the military and police are vital. While all these organs of the state are creatures created and bound by law, an independent legal profession and a vibrant civil society inform and support their progress.

 

All legal systems deal with the same basic issues, but each country categorises and identifies its legal subjects in different ways. A common distinction is that between "public law" (a term related closely to the state, and including constitutional, administrative and criminal law), and "private law" (which covers contract, tortand property). In civil law systems, contract and tort fall under a general law of obligations, while trusts law is dealt with under statutory regimes or international conventions. International, constitutional and administrative law, criminal law, contract, tort, property law and trusts are regarded as the "traditional core subjects",although there are many further disciplines .Legal subjects

 

International law Public international lawConflict of laws, and European Union law

 

Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations system was agreed during World War II

 

International law can refer to three things: public international law, private international law or conflict of laws and the law of supranational organisations.

 

 

  • Conflict of laws (or "private international law" in civil law countries) concerns which jurisdiction a legal dispute between private parties should be heard in and which jurisdiction's law should be applied. Today, businesses are increasingly capable of shifting capital and labour supply chains across borders, as well as trading with overseas businesses, making the question of which country has jurisdiction even more pressing. Increasing numbers of businesses opt for commercial arbitration under the New York Convention 1958.

 

  • European Union law is the first and, so far, only example of a supranational legal framework. Given the trend of increasing global economic integration, many regional agreements—especially the Union of South American Nations—are on track to follow the same model. In the EU, sovereign nations have gathered their authority in a system of courts and political institutions. These institutions are allowed the ability to enforce legal norms both against or for member states and citizens in a manner which is not possible through public international law. As the European Court of Justice said in the 1960s, European Union law constitutes "a new legal order of international law" for the mutual social and economic benefit of the member states.

 

Constitutional and administrative law

 

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value

Constitutional and administrative law govern the affairs of the state. Constitutional law concerns both the relationships between the executive, legislature and judiciary and the human rights or civil liberties of individuals against the state. Most jurisdictions, like the United States and France, have a single codified constitution with a bill of rights. A few, like theUnited Kingdom, have no such document. A "constitution" is simply those laws which constitute the body politic, fromstatutecase law and convention. A case named Entick v Carrington illustrates a constitutional principle deriving from the common law. Mr Entick's house was searched and ransacked by Sheriff Carrington. When Mr Entick complained in court, Sheriff Carrington argued that a warrant from a Government minister, the Earl of Halifax, was valid authority. However, there was no written statutory provision or court authority. The leading judge, Lord Camden, stated that,

 

The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property. That right is preserved sacred and incommunicable in all instances, where it has not been taken away or abridged by some public law for the good of the whole ... If no excuse can be found or produced, the silence of the books is an authority against the defendant, and the plaintiff must have judgment.

 

The fundamental constitutional principle, inspired by John Locke, holds that the individual can do anything but that which is forbidden by law, and the state may do nothing but that which is authorised by law. Administrative law is the chief method for people to hold state bodies to account. People can apply for judicial review of actions or decisions by local councils, public services or government ministries, to ensure that they comply with the law. The first specialist administrative court was the Conseil d'État set up in 1799, as Napoleon assumed power in France.

 

Criminal law

 

Criminal law, also known as penal law, pertains to crimes and punishment. It thus regulates the definition of and penalties for offences found to have a sufficiently deleterious social impact but, in itself, makes no moral judgment on an offender nor imposes restrictions on society that physically prevents people from committing a crime in the first place.[21] Investigating, apprehending, charging, and trying suspected offenders is regulated by the law of criminal procedure.[22] The paradigm case of a crime lies in the proof, beyond reasonable doubt, that a person is guilty of two things. First, the accused must commit an act which is deemed by society to be criminal, or actus reus (guilty act).[23] Second, the accused must have the requisite malicious intent to do a criminal act, or mens rea (guilty mind). However for so called "strict liability" crimes, an actus reus is enough.[24] Criminal systems of the civil law tradition distinguish between intention in the broad sense (dolus directusand dolus eventualis), and negligence. Negligence does not carry criminal responsibility unless a particular crime provides for its punishment.

 

A depiction of a 1600s criminal trial, forwitchcraft in Salem

 

Examples of crimes include murderassaultfraud and theft. In exceptional circumstances defences can apply to specific acts, such as killing in self defence, or pleading insanity. Another example is in the 19th century English case of R v Dudley and Stephens, which tested a defence of "necessity". The Mignonette, sailing from Southampton to Sydney, sank. Three crew members and Richard Parker, a 17 year old cabin boy, were stranded on a raft. They were starving and the cabin boy was close to death. Driven to extreme hunger, the crew killed and ate the cabin boy. The crew survived and were rescued, but put on trial for murder. They argued it was necessary to kill the cabin boy to preserve their own lives. Lord Coleridge, expressing immense disapproval, ruled, "to preserve one's life is generally speaking a duty, but it may be the plainest and the highest duty to sacrifice it." The men were sentenced to hang, but public opinion was overwhelmingly supportive of the crew's right to preserve their own lives. In the end, the Crown commuted their sentences to six months in jail.[27]

 

Criminal law offences are viewed as offences against not just individual victims, but the community as well.[21] The state, usually with the help of police, takes the lead in prosecution, which is why in common law countries cases are cited as "The People v ..." or "R (for Rex or Regina) v ..." Also, lay juries are often used to determine the guilt of defendants on points of fact: juries cannot change legal rules. Some developed countries still condone capital punishment for criminal activity, but the normal punishment for a crime will be imprisonmentfines, state supervision (such as probation), or community service. Modern criminal law has been affected considerably by the social sciences, especially with respect to sentencing, legal research, legislation, and rehabilitation.[28] On the international field, 111 countries are members of the International Criminal Court, which was established to try people for crimes against humanity.[29]

 

Contract law

 

The famous Carbolic Smoke Ball advertisement to cure influenza was held to be a unilateral contract

 

Contract law concerns enforceable promises, and can be summed up in the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda (agreements must be kept).[30] In common law jurisdictions, three key elements to the creation of a contract are necessary: offer and acceptanceconsideration and the intention to create legal relations. In Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company a medical firm advertised that its new wonder drug, the smokeball, would cure people's flu, and if it did not, the buyers would get£100. Many people sued for their £100 when the drug did not work. Fearing bankruptcy, Carbolic argued the advert was not to be taken as a serious, legally binding offer. It was an invitation to treat, mere puff, a gimmick. But the court of appeal held that to a reasonable man Carbolic had made a serious offer. People had given good consideration for it by going to the "distinct inconvenience" of using a faulty product. "Read the advertisement how you will, and twist it about as you will", saidLord Justice Lindley, "here is a distinct promise expressed in language which is perfectly unmistakable".[31]

 

"Consideration" indicates the fact that all parties to a contract have exchanged something of value. Some common law systems, including Australia, are moving away from the idea of consideration as a requirement. The idea of estoppel orculpa in contrahendo, can be used to create obligations during pre-contractual negotiations.[32] In civil law jurisdictions, consideration is not required for a contract to be binding.[33] In France, an ordinary contract is said to form simply on the basis of a "meeting of the minds" or a "concurrence of wills". Germany has a special approach to contracts, which ties into property law. Their 'abstraction principle' (Abstraktionsprinzip) means that the personal obligation of contract forms separately from the title of property being conferred. When contracts are invalidated for some reason (e.g. a car buyer is so drunk that he lacks legal capacity to contract)[34] the contractual obligation to pay can be invalidated separately from the proprietary title of the car. Unjust enrichment law, rather than contract law, is then used to restore title to the rightful owner.[35]

 

Tort law

 

The "McLibel" two were involved in the longest running case in UK history for publishing a pamphlet criticising McDonald'srestaurants.

 

Torts, sometimes called delicts, are civil wrongs. To have acted tortiously, one must have breached a duty to another person, or infringed some pre-existing legal right. A simple example might be accidentally hitting someone with a cricket ball.[36] Under the law of negligence, the most common form of tort, the injured party could potentially claim compensation for his injuries from the party responsible. The principles of negligence are illustrated by Donoghue v Stevenson.[37] A friend of Mrs Donoghue ordered an opaque bottle of ginger beer (intended for the consumption of Mrs Donoghue) in a café inPaisley. Having consumed half of it, Mrs Donoghue poured the remainder into a tumbler. The decomposing remains of a snail floated out. She claimed to have suffered from shock, fell ill with gastroenteritis and sued the manufacturer for carelessly allowing the drink to be contaminated. The House of Lords decided that the manufacturer was liable for Mrs Donoghue's illness. Lord Atkin took a distinctly moral approach, and said,

 

The liability for negligence ... is no doubt based upon a general public sentiment of moral wrongdoing for which the offender must pay ... The rule that you are to love your neighbour becomes in law, you must not injure your neighbour; and the lawyer's question, Who is my neighbour? receives a restricted reply. You must take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions which you can reasonably foresee would be likely to injure your neighbour.[38]

 

This became the basis for the four principles of negligence; (1) Mr Stevenson owed Mrs Donoghue a duty of care to provide safe drinks (2) he breached his duty of care (3) the harm would not have occurred but for his breach and (4) his act was the proximate cause, or not too remote a consequence, of her harm.[37] Another example of tort might be a neighbour making excessively loud noises with machinery on his property.[39] Under a nuisance claim the noise could be stopped. Torts can also involve intentional acts, such as assaultbattery or trespass. A better known tort is defamation, which occurs, for example, when a newspaper makes unsupportable allegations that damage a politician's reputation.[40] More infamous are economic torts, which form the basis of labour law in some countries by making trade unions liable for strikes,[41] when statute does not provide immunity.[42]

 

Property law

 

A painting of the South Sea Bubble, one of the world's first ever speculations and crashes, led to strict regulation on share trading.[43]

 

Property law governs valuable things that people call 'theirs'. Real property, sometimes called 'real estate' refers to ownership of land and things attached to it.[44] Personal property, refers to everything else; movable objects, such as computers, cars, jewelry, and sandwiches, or intangible rights, such as stocks and shares. A right in rem is a right to a specific piece of property, contrasting to a right in personam which allows compensation for a loss, but not a particular thing back. Land law forms the basis for most kinds of property law, and is the most complex. It concerns mortgages,rental agreementslicencescovenantseasements and the statutory systems for land registration. Regulations on the use of personal property fall under intellectual propertycompany lawtrusts and commercial law. An example of a basic case of most property law is Armory v Delamirie.[45]chimney sweep's boy found a jewel encrusted with precious stones. He took it to a goldsmith to have it valued. The goldsmith's apprentice looked at it, sneakily removed the stones, told the boy it was worth three halfpence and that he would buy it. The boy said he would prefer the jewel back, so the apprentice gave it to him, but without the stones. The boy sued the goldsmith for his apprentice's attempt to cheat him. Lord Chief Justice Pratt ruled that even though the boy could not be said to own the jewel, he should be considered the rightful keeper ("finders keeper") until the original owner is found. In fact the apprentice and the boy both had a right of possession in the jewel (a technical concept, meaning evidence that something could belong to someone), but the boy's possessory interest was considered better, because it could be shown to be first in time. Possession may be nine tenths of the law, but not all.

 

This case is used to support the view of property in common law jurisdictions, that the person who can show the best claim to a piece of property, against any contesting party, is the owner.[46] By contrast, the classic civil law approach to property, propounded by Friedrich Carl von Savigny, is that it is a right good against the world. Obligations, like contracts and torts are conceptualised as rights good between individuals.[47] The idea of property raises many further philosophical and political issues. Locke argued that our "lives, liberties and estates" are our property because we own our bodies and mix our labour with our surroundings.[48]

 

Equity and trusts

 

The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century

 

Equity is a body of rules that developed in England separately from the "common law". The common law was administered by judges. The Lord Chancellor on the other hand, as the King's keeper of conscience, could overrule the judge made law if he thought it equitable to do so.[49] This meant equity came to operate more through principles than rigid rules. For instance, whereas neither the common law nor civil law systems allow people to split the ownership from the control of one piece of property, equity allows this through an arrangement known as a 'trust'. 'Trustees' control property, whereas the 'beneficial' (or 'equitable') ownership of trust property is held by people known as 'beneficiaries'. Trustees owe duties to their beneficiaries to take good care of the entrusted property.[50] In the early case of Keech v Sandford[51] a child had inherited the lease on a market in Romford, London. Mr Sandford was entrusted to look after this property until the child matured. But before then, the lease expired. The landlord had (apparently) told Mr Sandford that he did not want the child to have the renewed lease. Yet the landlord was happy (apparently) to give Mr Sandford the opportunity of the lease instead. Mr Sandford took it. When the child (now Mr Keech) grew up, he sued Mr Sandford for the profit that he had been making by getting the market's lease. Mr Sandford was meant to be trusted, but he put himself in a position of conflict of interest. TheLord ChancellorLord King, agreed and ordered Mr Sandford should disgorge his profits. He wrote,

 

I very well see, if a trustee, on the refusal to renew, might have a lease to himself few trust-estates would be renewed ... This may seem very hard, that the trustee is the only person of all mankind who might not have the lease; but it is very proper that the rule should be strictly pursued and not at all relaxed.

 

Of course, Lord King LC was worried that trustees might exploit opportunities to use trust property for themselves instead of looking after it. Business speculators using trusts had just recently caused a stock market crash. Strict duties for trustees made their way into company law and were applied to directors and chief executive officers. Another example of a trustee's duty might be to invest property wisely or sell it.[52] This is especially the case for pension funds, the most important form of trust, where investors are trustees for people's savings until retirement. But trusts can also be set up for charitable purposes, famous examples being theBritish Museum or the Rockefeller Foundation.

 

Further disciplines

 

Law spreads far beyond the core subjects into virtually every area of life. Three categories are presented for convenience, though the subjects intertwine and overlap.

 

Law and society

 

A trade union protest by UNISON while on strike

 

 

Law and commerce

 

 

Law and regulation

 

The New York Stock Exchange trading floor after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, before tougher banking regulation was introduced

 

 

Legal systems

 

In general, legal systems can be split between civil law and common law systems.[56] The term "civil law" referring to a legal system should not be confused with "civil law" as a group of legal subjects distinct from criminal or public law. A third type of legal system—accepted by some countries without separation of church and state—is religious law, based on scriptures. The specific system that a country is ruled by is often determined by its history, connections with other countries, or its adherence to international standards. The sources that jurisdictions adopt as authoritatively binding are the defining features of any legal system. Yet classification is a matter of form rather than substance, since similar rules often prevail.

 


Civil law
(legal system)

 

First page of the 1804 edition of theNapoleonic Code

 

Civil law is the legal system used in most countries around the world today. In civil law the sources recognised as authoritative are, primarily, legislation—especially codifications in constitutions or statutes passed by government—andcustom.[57] Codifications date back millennia, with one early example being the Babylonian Codex Hammurabi. Modern civil law systems essentially derive from the legal practice of the 6th-century Eastern Roman Empire whose texts were rediscovered by late medieval Western Europe. Roman law in the days of the Roman Republic and Empire was heavily procedural, and lacked a professional legal class.[58] Instead a lay magistrateiudex, was chosen to adjudicate. Precedents were not reported, so any case law that developed was disguised and almost unrecognised.[59] Each case was to be decided afresh from the laws of the State, which mirrors the (theoretical) unimportance of judges' decisions for future cases in civil law systems today. From 529–534 AD the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I codified and consolidated Roman law up until that point, so that what remained was one-twentieth of the mass of legal texts from before.[60] This became known as the Corpus Juris Civilis. As one legal historian wrote, "Justinian consciously looked back to the golden age of Roman law and aimed to restore it to the peak it had reached three centuries before."[61] The Justinian Code remained in force in the East until the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Western Europe, meanwhile, relied on a mix of the Theodosian Code and Germanic customary law until the Justinian Code was rediscovered in the 11th century, and scholars at theUniversity of Bologna used it to interpret their own laws.[62] Civil law codifications based closely on Roman law, alongside some influences from religious laws such as Canon law, continued to spread throughout Europe until the Enlightenment; then, in the 19th century, both France, with the Code Civil, and Germany, with the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, modernised their legal codes. Both these codes influenced heavily not only the law systems of the countries in continental Europe (e.g. Greece), but also the Japanese and Korean legal traditions.[63][64] Today, countries that have civil law systems range from Russia and China to most of Central andLatin America.[65] The United States follows the common law system described below.

 

Common law and equity

 

King John of England signs Magna Carta

 

Common law and equity are legal systems where decisions by courts are explicitly acknowledged to be legal sources. The "doctrine of precedent", or stare decisis (Latin for "to stand by decisions") means that decisions by higher courts bind lower courts. Common law systems also rely on statutes, passed by the legislature, but may make less of a systematic attempt to codify their laws than in a "civil law" system. Common law originated from England and has been inherited by almost every country once tied to the British Empire (except Malta, Scotland, the U.S. state of Louisiana, and the Canadian province of Quebec). In medieval England, the Norman conquest led to a unification of various tribal customs and hence a law "common" to the whole country. The common law developed when the English monarchy had been weakened by the enormous cost of fighting for control over large parts of France. King John had been forced by his barons to sign a document limiting his authority to pass laws. This "great charter" or Magna Carta of 1215 also required that the King's entourage of judges hold their courts and judgments at "a certain place" rather than dispensing autocratic justice in unpredictable places about the country.[66] A concentrated and elite group of judges acquired a dominant role in law-making under this system, and compared to its European counterparts the English judiciary became highly centralised. In 1297, for instance, while the highest court in France had fifty-one judges, the English Court of Common Pleas had five.[67]This powerful and tight-knit judiciary gave rise to a rigid and inflexible system of common law.[68] As a result, as time went on, increasing numbers of citizens petitioned the King to override the common law, and on the King's behalf the Lord Chancellor gave judgment to do what was equitable in a case. From the time of Sir Thomas More, the first lawyer to be appointed as Lord Chancellor, a systematic body of equity grew up alongside the rigid common law, and developed its ownCourt of Chancery. At first, equity was often criticised as erratic, that it varied according to the length of the Chancellor's foot.[69] But over time it developed solid principles, especially under Lord Eldon.[70] In the 19th century the two systems were fused into one another. In developing the common law and equity, academic authors have always played an important part. William Blackstone, from around 1760, was the first scholar to describe and teach it.[71] But merely in describing, scholars who sought explanations and underlying structures slowly changed the way the law actually worked.[72]

 

Religious law

 

Religious law is explicitly based on religious precepts. Examples include the Jewish Halakha and Islamic Sharia—both of which translate as the "path to follow"—while Christian canon law also survives in some church communities. Often the implication of religion for law is unalterability, because the word of God cannot be amended or legislated against by judges or governments. However a thorough and detailed legal system generally requires human elaboration. For instance, theQuran has some law, and it acts as a source of further law through interpretation,[73] Qiyas (reasoning by analogy), Ijma (consensus) and precedent. This is mainly contained in a body of law and jurisprudence known as Sharia and Fiqh respectively. Another example is the Torah or Old Testament, in the Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses. This contains the basic code of Jewish law, which some Israeli communities choose to use. The Halakha is a code of Jewish law which summarises some of the Talmud's interpretations. Nevertheless, Israeli law allows litigants to use religious laws only if they choose. Canon law is only in use by members of the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion.

 

A trial in the Ottoman Empire, 1879, when religious law applied under the Mecelle

 

Until the 18th century, Sharia law was practiced throughout the Muslim world in a non-codified form, with the Ottoman Empire's Mecelle code in the 19th century being first attempt at codifying elements of Sharia law. Since the mid-1940s, efforts have been made, in country after country, to bring Sharia law more into line with modern conditions and conceptions.[74][75] In modern times, the legal systems of many Muslim countries draw upon both civil and common law traditions as well as Islamic law and custom. The constitutions of certain Muslim states, such as Egypt and Afghanistan, recognise Islam as the religion of the state, obliging legislature to adhere to Sharia.[76] Saudi Arabia recognises Quran as its constitution, and is governed on the basis of Islamic law.[77] Iran has also witnessed a reiteration of Islamic law into its legal system after 1979.[78] During the last few decades, one of the fundamental features of the movement of Islamic resurgence has been the call to restore the Sharia, which has generated a vast amount of literature and affected world politics.[79]

 

Legal theory

 

History of lawLegal history

 

King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun godShamash, also revered as the god of justice

 

The history of law is closely connected to the development of civilizationAncient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books. It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality.[80][81] By the 22nd century BC, the ancientSumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements ("if ... then ..."). Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; this became known as the Codex Hammurabi. The most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, and has since been fully transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, German, and French.[82]

 

The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society. The small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law",[83] relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law (thémis), human decree (nomos) and custom (díkē).[84] Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy.[85]

 

Roman law was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were highly sophisticated.[86][87] Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I.[88] Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when mediæval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. In mediæval England, royal courts developed a body of precedent which later became the common law. A Europe-wide Law Merchant was formed so that merchants could trade with common standards of practice rather than with the many splintered facets of local laws. The Law Merchant, a precursor to modern commercial law, emphasised the freedom to contract and alienability of property.[89] As nationalism grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, the Law Merchant was incorporated into countries' local law under new civil codes. The Napoleonic and German Codes became the most influential. In contrast to English common law, which consists of enormous tomes of case law, codes in small books are easy to export and easy for judges to apply. However, today there are signs that civil and common law are converging.[90] EU law is codified in treaties, but develops through the precedent laid down by the European Court of Justice.

 

The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words

 

Ancient India and China represent distinct traditions of law, and have historically had independent schools of legal theory and practice. The Arthashastra, probably compiled around 100 AD (although it contains older material), and the Manusmriti(c. 100–300 AD) were foundational treatises in India, and comprise texts considered authoritative legal guidance.[91] Manu's central philosophy was tolerance and Pluralism, and was cited across Southeast Asia.[92] This Hindu tradition, along with Islamic law, was supplanted by the common law when India became part of the British Empire.[93] Malaysia, Brunei,Singapore and Hong Kong also adopted the common law. The eastern Asia legal tradition reflects a unique blend of secular and religious influences.[94] Japan was the first country to begin modernising its legal system along western lines, by importing bits of the French, but mostly the German Civil Code.[95] This partly reflected Germany's status as a rising power in the late 19th century. Similarly, traditional Chinese law gave way to westernisation towards the final years of the Ch'ing dynasty in the form of six private law codes based mainly on the Japanese model of German law.[96] Today Taiwanese lawretains the closest affinity to the codifications from that period, because of the split between Chiang Kai-shek's nationalists, who fled there, and Mao Zedong's communists who won control of the mainland in 1949. The current legal infrastructure in the People's Republic of China was heavily influenced by Soviet Socialist law, which essentially inflates administrative law at the expense of private law rights.[97] Due to rapid industrialisation, today China is undergoing a process of reform, at least in terms of economic, if not social and political, rights. A new contract code in 1999 represented a move away from administrative domination.[98] Furthermore, after negotiations lasting fifteen years, in 2001 China joined the World Trade Organisation.[99]

 

Philosophy of law : Jurisprudence

 

"But what, after all, is a law? [...] When I say that the object of laws is always general, I mean that law considers subjects en masse and actions in the abstract, and never a particular person or action. [...] On this view, we at once see that it can no longer be asked whose business it is to make laws, since they are acts of the general will; nor whether the prince is above the law, since he is a member of the State; nor whether the law can be unjust, since no one is unjust to himself; nor how we can be both free and subject to the laws, since they are but registers of our wills."

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, II, 6.[100]

 

The philosophy of law is commonly known as jurisprudence. Normative jurisprudence is essentially political philosophy, and asks "what should law be?", while analytic jurisprudence asks "what is law?". John Austin's utilitarian answer was that law is "commands, backed by threat of sanctions, from a sovereign, to whom people have a habit of obedience".[101] Natural lawyers on the other side, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, argue that law reflects essentially moral and unchangeable laws of nature. The concept of "natural law" emerged in ancient Greek philosophy concurrently and in entanglement with the notion of justice, and re-entered the mainstream of Western culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas.

 

Hugo Grotius, the founder of a purely rationalistic system of natural law, argued that law arises from both a social impulse—as Aristotle had indicated—and reason.[102] Immanuel Kant believed a moral imperative requires laws "be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature".[103] Jeremy Bentham and his student Austin, following David Hume, believed that this conflated the "is" and what "ought to be" problem. Bentham and Austin argued for law's positivism; that real law is entirely separate from "morality".[104] Kant was also criticised by Friedrich Nietzsche, who rejected the principle of equality, and believed that law emanates from the will to power, and cannot be labelled as "moral" or "immoral".[105][106][107]

 

In 1934, the Austrian philosopher Hans Kelsen continued the positivist tradition in his book the Pure Theory of Law.[108] Kelsen believed that although law is separate from morality, it is endowed with "normativity"; meaning we ought to obey it. While laws are positive "is" statements (e.g. the fine for reversing on a highway is 500); law tells us what we "should" do. Thus, each legal system can be hypothesised to have a basic norm (Grundnorm) instructing us to obey. Kelsen's major opponent,Carl Schmitt, rejected both positivism and the idea of the rule of law because he did not accept the primacy of abstract normative principles over concrete political positions and decisions.[109] Therefore, Schmitt advocated a jurisprudence of the exception (state of emergency), which denied that legal norms could encompass of all political experience.[110]

 

Bentham's utilitarian theories remained dominant in law until the 20th century

 

Later in the 20th century, H. L. A. Hart attacked Austin for his simplifications and Kelsen for his fictions in The Concept of Law.[111] Hart argued law is a system of rules, divided into primary (rules of conduct) and secondary ones (rules addressed to officials to administer primary rules). Secondary rules are further divided into rules of adjudication (to resolve legal disputes), rules of change (allowing laws to be varied) and the rule of recognition (allowing laws to be identified as valid). Two of Hart's students continued the debate: In his book Law's EmpireRonald Dworkin attacked Hart and the positivists for their refusal to treat law as a moral issue. Dworkin argues that law is an "interpretive concept",[112] that requires judges to find the best fitting and most just solution to a legal dispute, given their constitutional traditions. Joseph Raz, on the other hand, defended the positivist outlook and criticised Hart's "soft social thesis" approach in The Authority of Law.[113] Raz argues that law is authority, identifiable purely through social sources and without reference to moral reasoning. In his view, any categorisation of rules beyond their role as authoritative instruments in mediation are best left to sociology, rather than jurisprudence.[114]

 

Economic analysis of law

 

In the 18th century Adam Smith presented a philosophical foundation for explaining the relationship between law and economics.[115] The discipline arose partly out of a critique of trade unions and U.S. antitrust law. The most influential proponents, such as Richard Posner and Oliver Williamson and the so-called Chicago School of economists and lawyers including Milton Friedman and Gary Becker, are generally advocates of deregulation and privatisation, and are hostile to state regulation or what they see as restrictions on the operation of free markets.[116]

 

Richard Posner, one of theChicago School, runs a blog with Bank of Sweden Prizewinning economist Gary Becker.[117]

 

The most prominent economic analyst of law is 1991 Nobel Prize winner Ronald Coase, whose first major article, The Nature of the Firm (1937), argued that the reason for the existence of firms (companies, partnerships, etc.) is the existence of transaction costs.[118]Rational individuals trade through bilateral contracts on open markets until the costs of transactions mean that using corporations to produce things is more cost-effective. His second major article, The Problem of Social Cost (1960), argued that if we lived in a world without transaction costs, people would bargain with one another to create the same allocation of resources, regardless of the way a court might rule in property disputes.[119] Coase used the example of a nuisance case named Sturges v Bridgman, where a noisy sweetmaker and a quiet doctor were neighbours and went to court to see who should have to move.[39] Coase said that regardless of whether the judge ruled that the sweetmaker had to stop using his machinery, or that the doctor had to put up with it, they could strike a mutually beneficial bargain about who moves house that reaches the same outcome of resource distribution. Only the existence oftransaction costs may prevent this.[120] So the law ought to pre-empt what would happen, and be guided by the most efficient solution. The idea is that law and regulation are not as important or effective at helping people as lawyers and government planners believe.[121]Coase and others like him wanted a change of approach, to put the burden of proof for positive effects on a government that was intervening in the market, by analysing the costs of action.[122]

 

Sociology of law

 

Sociology of law is a diverse field of study that examines the interaction of law with society and overlaps with jurisprudence, economic analysis of law and more specialised subjects such as criminology.[123] The institutions of social construction and legal frameworks are the relevant areas for the discipline's inquiry. At first, legal theorists were suspicious of the discipline. Kelsen attacked one of its founders, Eugen Ehrlich, who sought to make distinct the differences between positive law, which lawyers learn and apply, and other forms of 'law' or social norms that regulate everyday life, generally preventing conflicts from reaching lawyers and courts.[124][125]

 

Max Weber in 1917, Weber began his career as a lawyer, and is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law

 

Around 1900 Max Weber defined his "scientific" approach to law, identifying the "legal rational form" as a type of domination, not attributable to people but to abstract norms.[126] Legal rationalism was his term for a body of coherent and calculable law which formed a precondition for modern political developments and the modern bureaucratic state and developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism.[123] Another sociologist, Émile Durkheim, wrote in The Division of Labour in Society that as society becomes more complex, the body of civil law concerned primarily with restitution and compensation grows at the expense of criminal laws and penal sanctions.[127] Other notable early legal sociologists included Hugo SinzheimerTheodor GeigerGeorges Gurvitch and Leon Petrażycki in Europe, and William Graham Sumner in the U.S.[128][129]

 

Legal institutions

 

It is a real unity of them all in one and the same person, made by covenant of every man with every man, in such manner as if every man should say to every man: I authorise and give up my right of governing myself to this man, or to this assembly of men, on this condition; that thou givest up, thy right to him, and authorise all his actions in like manner.

Thomas Hobbes, LeviathanXVII

 

The main institutions of law in industrialised countries are independentcourts, representative parliaments, an accountable executive, the militaryand policebureaucratic organisation, the legal profession and civil society itself. John Locke, in his Two Treatises of Government, and Baron de Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws, advocated for a separation of powers between the political, legislature and executive bodies.[130] Their principle was that no person should be able to usurp all powers of the state, in contrast to the absolutist theory of Thomas HobbesLeviathan.[131] Max Weber and others reshaped thinking on the extension of state. Modern military, policing and bureaucratic power over ordinary citizens' daily lives pose special problems for accountability that earlier writers such as Locke or Montesquieu could not have foreseen. The custom and practice of the legal profession is an important part of people's access to justice, whilst civil society is a term used to refer to the social institutions, communities and partnerships that form law's political basis.

 

Judiciary

 

A judiciary is a number of judges mediating disputes to determine outcome. Most countries have systems of appeal courts, answering up to a supreme legal authority. In the United States, this is the Supreme Court;[132] in Australia, the High Court; in the UK, the Supreme Court;[133] in Germany, theBundesverfassungsgericht; in France, the Cour de Cassation.[134][135] For most European countries the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg can overrule national law, when EU law is relevant. The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg allows citizens of the Council of Europe member states to bring cases relating to human rights issues before it.[136]

 

 

Some countries allow their highest judicial authority to overrule legislation they determined as unconstitutional. In Roe v Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned a Texas law which forbade the granting of assistance to women seekingabortion.[137] The U.S.'s constitution's fourteenth amendment was interpreted to give Americans a right to privacy, and thus a woman's right to choose abortion.

 

A judiciary is theoretically bound by the constitution, much as legislative bodies are. In most countries judges may onlyinterpret the constitution and all other laws. But in common law countries, where matters are not constitutional, the judiciary may also create law under the doctrine of precedent. The UK, Finland and New Zealand assert the ideal ofparliamentary sovereignty, whereby the unelected judiciary may not overturn law passed by a democratic legislature.[138] Incommunist states, such as China, the courts are often regarded as parts of the executive, or subservient to the legislature; governmental institutions and actors exert thus various forms of influence on the judiciary.[139] In Muslim countries, courts often examine whether state laws adhere to the Sharia: the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt may invalidate such laws,[140] and in Iran the Guardian Council ensures the compatibility of the legislation with the "criteria of Islam".[140][141]

 

Legislature

 

The debating chamber of the European Parliament

 

Prominent examples of legislatures are the Houses of Parliament in London, the Congress in Washington D.C., theBundestag in Berlin, the Duma in Moscow, the Parlamento Italiano in Rome and the Assemblée nationale in Paris. By the principle of representative government people vote for politicians to carry out their wishes. Although countries like Israel, Greece, Sweden and China are unicameral, most countries are bicameral, meaning they have two separately appointed legislative houses. In the 'lower house' politicians are elected to represent smaller constituencies. The 'upper house' is usually elected to represent states in a federal system (as in Australia, Germany or the United States) or different voting configuration in a unitary system (as in France). In the UK the upper house is appointed by the government as a house of review. One criticism of bicameral systems with two elected chambers is that the upper and lower houses may simply mirror one another. The traditional justification of bicameralism is that an upper chamber acts as a house of review. This can minimise arbitrariness and injustice in governmental action.[142]

 

To pass legislation, a majority of the members of a legislature must vote for a bill (proposed law) in each house. Normally there will be several readings and amendments proposed by the different political factions. If a country has an entrenched constitution, a special majority for changes to the constitution may be required, making changes to the law more difficult. A government usually leads the process, which can be formed from Members of Parliament (e.g. the UK or Germany). However, in a presidential system, the government is usually formed by an executive and his or her appointed cabinet officials (e.g. the United States or Brazil).[143]

 

Executive : (government)

 

The G20 meetings are composed of representatives of each country's executive branch

 

The executive in a legal system serves as a government's centre of political authority. In a parliamentary system, as with Britain, Italy, Germany, India, and Japan, the executive is known as the cabinet, and composed of members of the legislature. The executive is chosen by the Prime Minister or Chancellor, whose office holds power under the confidence of the legislature. Because popular elections appoint political parties to govern, the leader of a party can change in between elections. The head of state is apart from the executive, and symbolically enacts laws and acts as representative of the nation. Examples include the German president (appointed by members of federal and state Parliaments) the Queen of the United Kingdom (a hereditary title), and the Austrian president (elected by popular vote). The other important model is thepresidential system, found in France, the U.S. and Russia. In presidential systems, the executive acts as both head of state and head of government, and has power to appoint an unelected cabinet. Under a presidential system, the executive branch is separate from the legislature to which it is not accountable.[144][145]

 

Although the role of the executive varies from country to country, usually it will propose the majority of legislation, and propose government agenda. In presidential systems, the executive often has the power to veto legislation. Most executives in both systems are responsible for foreign relations, the military and police, and the bureaucracy. Ministers or other officials head a country's public offices, such as aforeign ministry or interior ministry. The election of a different executive is therefore capable of revolutionising an entire country's approach to government.

 

Military and police

 

 

While military organizations have existed as long as government itself, the idea of a standing police force is relatively modern concept. For example, Mediæval England's system of traveling criminal courts, or assizes, used show trials and public executions to instill communities with fear to maintain control.[146] The first modern police were probably those in 17th-century Paris, in the court of Louis XIV,[147] although the Paris Prefecture of Police claim they were the world's first uniformed policemen.[148]

 

Max Weber famously argued that the state is that which controls the legitimate monopoly of the means of violence.[149][150]The military and police carry out enforcement at the request of the government or the courts. The term failed state refers to states that cannot implement or enforce policies; their police and military no longer control security and order and society moves into anarchy, the absence of government.[151]

 

Bureaucracy

 

The United Nations' New Yorkheadquarters houses civil servants that serve its 192 member states.

 

The etymology of "bureaucracy" derives from the French word for "office" (bureau) and the Ancient Greek for word "power" (kratos).[152] Like the military and police, a legal system's government servants and bodies that make up its bureaucracy carry out the directives of the executive. One of the earliest references to the concept was made by Baron de Grimm, a German author who lived in France. In 1765 he wrote,

 

The real spirit of the laws in France is that bureaucracy of which the late Monsieur de Gournay used to complain so greatly; here the offices, clerks, secretaries, inspectors and intendants are not appointed to benefit the public interest, indeed the public interest appears to have been established so that offices might exist.[153]

 

Cynicism over "officialdom" is still common, and the workings of public servants is typically contrasted to private enterprisemotivated by profit.[154] In fact private companies, especially large ones, also have bureaucracies.[155] Negative perceptions of "red tape" aside, public services such as schooling, health care, policing or public transport are a crucial state function making public bureaucratic action the locus of government power.[155] Writing in the early 20th century, Max Weber believed that a definitive feature of a developed state had come to be its bureaucratic support.[156] Weber wrote that the typical characteristics of modern bureaucracy are that officials define its mission, the scope of work is bound by rules, management is composed of career experts, who manage top down, communicating through writing and binding public servants' discretion with rules.[157]

 

Legal profession

 

In civil law systems such as those of France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Greece, there is a distinct category of notary, a legally trained public official, compensated by the parties to a transaction.[158] This is a 16th-century painting of such a notary by Flemish painter Quentin Massys.

 

A corollary of the rule of law is the existence of a legal profession sufficiently autonomous to be able to invoke the authority of the independent judiciary; the right to assistance of an advocate in a court proceeding emanates from this corollary—in England the function of barrister or advocate is distinguished from legal counselor (solicitor).[159] As the European Court of Human Rights has stated, the law should be adequately accessible to everyone and people should be able to foresee how the law affects them.[160] In order to maintain professionalism, the practice of law is typically overseen by either a government or independent regulating body such as a bar associationbar council or law society. Modern lawyers achieve distinct professional identity through specified legal procedures (e.g. successfully passing a qualifying examination), are required by law to have a special qualification (a legal education earning the student a Bachelor of Laws, a Bachelor of Civil Law or a Juris Doctor degree[161]), and are constituted in office by legal forms of appointment (being admitted to the bar). Most Muslim countries have developed similar rules about legal education and the legal profession, but some still allow lawyers with training in traditional Islamic law to practice law before personal status law courts.[162] In China and other developing countries there are not sufficient professionally-trained people to staff the existing judicial systems, and, accordingly, formal standards are more relaxed.[163]

 

Once accredited, a lawyer will often work in a law firm, in a chambers as a sole practitioner, in a government post or in a private corporation as an internal counsel. In addition a lawyer may become a legal researcher who provides on-demand legal research through a library, a commercial service or through freelance work. Many people trained in law put their skills to use outside the legal field entirely. Significant to the practice of law in the common law tradition is the legal research to determine the current state of the law. This usually entails exploring case-law reportslegal periodicals and legislation. Law practice also involves drafting documents such as court pleadings, persuasive briefs, contracts, or wills and trusts. Negotiation and dispute resolution skills (including ADR techniques) are also important to legal practice, depending on the field.[164]

 

Civil society

 

A march in Washington D.C. during theU.S. Civil Rights Movement in 1963

 

Classical republican concept of "civil society" dates back to Hobbes and Locke.[165] Locke saw civil society as people who have "a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between them."[166]German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel distinguished the "state" from "civil society" (burgerliche Gesellschaft) in Elements of the Philosophy of Right.[167] Hegel believed that civil society and the state were polar opposites, within the scheme of his dialectic theory of history. The modern dipole state–civil society was reproduced in the theories of Alexis de Tocqueville and Karl Marx.[168][169] Nowadays in post-modern theory civil society is necessarily a source of law, by being the basis from which people form opinions and lobby for what they believe law should be. As Australian barrister and authorGeoffrey Robertson QC wrote of international law,

 

... one of its primary modern sources is found in the responses of ordinary men and women, and of the non-governmental organizations which many of them support, to the human rights abuses they see on the television screen in their living rooms.[170]

 

Freedom of speechfreedom of association and many other individual rights allow people to gather, discuss, criticise and hold to account their governments, from which the basis of a deliberative democracy is formed. The more people are involved with, concerned by and capable of changing how political power is exercised over their lives, the more acceptable and legitimate the law becomes to the people. The most familiar institutions of civil society include economic markets, profit-oriented firms, families, trade unions, hospitals, universities, schools, charities, debating clubsnon-governmental organisations, neighbourhoods, churches, and religious associations.[171]

 

 
Share on Facebook
comments

 

Congratulations

to all of you for rebuilding PEACE +Disease-Free World

 

Come & Share to improve your Physical-Mental+Spiritual Health

 

including humankind +environment. 

 

Contact & Visit us----

 

e-mail : dr.pareshmajumder@gmail.com WEB :  drpareshmajumder.com

---------------------------------------------------------

We’re updating our WEB regularly from now

for the greater interest of

Humankind, Environment & next generation

to rebuild PEACE-Truth-Unity-Global friendship-

Discipline-Responsibility-Love-Humanism-etc.----

assuring the Physical-mental & Spiritual Health of

everybody universe-wide at one Platform,

removing all sorts of ignorance-evilness-violation

 from+++++based on

 “TOTAL HEALTH SOLUTION”++++

 

 Please send your valuable opinion through

our e-mail to serve all of you

00021852
Today
Yesterday
This Week
Last Week
This Month
Last Month
All_Days
75
8
89
21487
395
458
21852
Your IP: 54.91.38.173
Server Time: 2017-12-12 14:04:27
 

What's New

“TOTAL HEALTH SOLUTION” for the Sound Physical-Mental-Spiritual Health Globe-wide++++, assuring PEACE-UNITY

 

Heart is an important themetic organ  to save Life in the universe; though Water is LIFE but Water like blood survive us supplying most necessary  things into our body  intaking foods-drinks-airs-medicines etc. World Heart Day make us conscious to save our Life making Heart Healty by some alertness & cares,

World Heart Federation & WHO works properly for the same with full strength for the greater interest of Humankind & next-generation assuring Peace-Unity  globe-wide.

 

 Themes taken for the DAY from 2010 to 2013 has given below :

·         ‘One World, One Home, One Heart’.

·         ‘A healthy heart for a healthy lifestyle’

·         ‘Workplace Wellness’ is the overarching topic of World Heart Day 2010, with the aim to promote the workplace as the ideal setting to adopt healthy behaviours in order to prevent heart disease and stroke.

·         A life-course approach to the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with a focus on women and children…… because ‘Healthy children lead to healthy adults and healthy adults lead to healthy families and communities’.

10 steps for a Healthy Heart & Life -------10 simple steps

 HOW YOU CAN LEAD A HEALTHY & SAFE LIFE LESS RISK from CVD  ………………….

1. Healthy food intake - Eat at least 5 servings of fruit and vegetables a day and avoid saturated fat. Beware of processed foods, which often contain high levels of salt.

2. Get active & take heart - Even 30 minutes of activity can help to prevent heart attacks and strokes and your work will benefit too.

3. Say no to tobacco - Your risk of coronary heart disease will be halved within a year and will return to a normal level over time.

4. Maintain a healthy weight - Weight loss, especially together with lower ed salt intake, leads to lower blood pressure. High blood pressure is the number one risk factor for stroke and a major factor for approximately half of all heart disease and stroke.

International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction

Congratulations to All+++ Universe-wide.. Today, 13 Oct. is International Day of Natural Disaster Reduction ( Theme - 2013: Living with Disability and Disasters) to facilitate our consciousness & knowledge how to face Natural Disaster & its parallel consequences, to save Life & control Environment  nature-friendly in favor of all world/universe-wide. UN plays the best role to make this Day more meaningful for everyone or responsible individuals in their chapters. I hope everyone will support from their position. Though  we’re the sportive of Nature yet we can make it friendly if we alert & dutiful to humankind & our surroundings with greater carefulness. Everyone in our society & nature take a part to help us if we aware to their characteristics of helping +management of utilities. Friends pls share what’s our role to face the same Natural disasters human & Environment friendly as we require, I again hope your role will take an achievement in favor of all globe-wide++++.

International Day of the Girl Child

Friends Congratulations! to All. 11 Oct. was International Day of Girl Child to conscious us our Duty+ Responsibilities for them & how they’ll grow up as the best next generation. But have we taken any executive role, preserving their sound Physical, Mental & Spiritual Health based on highest “Total Health Solution” regularly. Pls share what can we do together for the same for the greater interest of Humankind-Environment-Next generation & MDG initiatives, assuring their access to Education, Nutrition, Legal Rights, Medical care for sound triple health, up-to-date Social Safety and protection from Discrimination, Violence and unfree Child Marriage

International Day of the Girl Child is an international observance day declared by the United Nations. October 11, 2012, was the first Day of the Girl. The observation supports more opportunity for girls, and increases awareness of inequality faced by girls worldwide based upon their gender. This inequality includes areas such as access to education, nutrition, legal rights, medical care, and protection from discrimination, violence and unfree child marriage. 

 

History---The International Day of the Girl Child initiative began as a project of Plan International,

The following brief article is an introduction to familiar with MDG:

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a UN initiative to solve the basic needs of root-level communities.
 

 

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 189 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve these goals by the year 2015.

The GOALS are:

 

  1. Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger
  2. Achieving universal primary education
  3. Promoting gender equality and empowering women
  4. Reducing child mortality rates
  5. Improving maternal health
  6. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
  7. Ensuring environmental sustainability
  8. Developing a global partnership for development

We are for all, All are for us; to rebuild a peaceful social LIFE everywhere in the world/universe improving physical, mental +spiritual Health. This following simplified version of the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been created especially for young people.
 

1. We Are All Born Free & Equal:

We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way.

2. Don’t Discriminate:

These rights belong to everybody, whatever our differences.

3. The Right to Life:

We all have the right to life, and to live in freedom and safety.

Positivist theories (Realism)

Realism focuses on state security and power above all else. Early realists such as E.H. Carr and Hans Morgenthau argued that states are self-interested, power-seeking rational actors, who seek to maximize their security and chances of survival. Cooperation between states is a way to maximize each individual state's security (as opposed to more idealistic reasons). Similarly, any act of war must be based on self-interest, rather than on idealism. Many realists saw World War II as the vindication of their theory.

It should be noted that classical writers such as Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes and Theodore Roosevelt, are often cited as "founding fathers" of realism by contemporary self-described realists.[citation needed] However, while their work may support realist doctrine, it is not likely that they would have classified themselves as realists in this sense. Political realism believes that politics, like society in general, is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature. To improve society,

Update Hospital List in Bangladesh

Dhaka, Chittagong, Narayangonj, Cox'sbazar. Comilla, Sylhet, Noakhali

Dhaka

Shahid Suhrawardy Hospital

Ser-e-Banglanagar, Collegegate

9122560-78

Ad-Din Hospital

Moghbazar, Dhaka

9353391-3

Ahmed Medical Centre Ltd.

House # 71, Road # 15-A, (New), Dhanmondi C/A

8113628

Aichi Hospital

House # 13, Eshakha Avenue Sector # 6, utttara Dhaka

8916290,8920165

Al Anaiet Adhunik Hospital

House # 36, Road # 3, Dhanmondi

8631619

Al- Helal Speacialist Hospital

150,Rokeya Sarani Senpara ParbataMirpur-10, Dhaka

9006820,9008181

Al Jebel-E-Nur Heart Ltd.

House # 21, Road # 9/A (New),Dhanmondi

8117031

Al- Rajhi Hospital

12, Farmgate. Dhaka -1215

8119229,8121172,9117775

Al-Ahsraf General Hospital

House # 12 Road # 21,Sector # 4,Uttara Dhaka

8952851-2

Al-Biruni Hospital

23/1, Khilzee Road, Shyamoli

8118905, 9115953

Al-Fateh Medical Sevices (Pvt) Ltd.

11, Farmgate over Bridge East Side

9120615

Al-Madina General Hospital (Pvt.) Ltd.

2/A, Golden Street, Ring Road, Shamoli, Dhaka

8118709

Al-Manar Hospital

5/4, Block-F, Lalmatia Dhaka- 1207

9121387, 9121588

Al-Markazul Islami Hospital

21/17, Babar Road, Mohammadpur

8114980, 9129426

Al-Mohite General Hospital & Diagnostic Centre

House # 11, Road # 2, Shamoli

9113831, 9114220 Ext 238

Amri Hospitals, Kolkata

Bangladesh Information Center:
C/O R R Trading & Co.
Erectors House (10 th Flr.)
18, Kemal Ataturk Avenue
Banani C/A, Dhaka - 1213

9893528-9

Anjuman-E-Mofidul Islam

Dhaka

9336611

Appolo Hospital

20/5, Babar Road, (Ground Floor), Block # B, Mohammadpur

8152549

Arimo General Hospital

Matuil, Deamra Road

 

Arogya Niketan Hospital Ltd.

242-243, New Circular Road, Malibagh

9333730

Aysha Memorial Specialized Hospital

74/G, Arjatpara, Mohakhali, Dhaka

9122689, 9122690

B.D.F. Hospital

5/7, Humayaun Road, Block # D, Mohammadpur

8123730, 8116637

Bangabandhu Shiekh Mujib Medical University

Shabagh, Dhaka

8614001-9, 8614545

Bangal Nursing Home Ltd.

Lake Circus, Kalabagan, Dhaka

9114824

Bangkok Hospital Office, Bangladesh

Lion Complex (4th Floor), 73, New Airport Road, Tejgaon

9139777, 9134982, 9113864

Bangladesh Association For The Aged & Institute Of Gerecitric Medicine

Agargaon, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar

9129814

Bangladesh Heart & Chest Hospital

Road # 27 (Old), 16 (New), House # 47, Dhanmondi

9114266, 8123977

Bangladesh Medical College

House # 35, Road # 14/A, Dhanmondi

9118202, 8115843

Bangladesh Telemedicine Services Ltd.

Comfort Tower, 167/B, Green Road, Dhanmondi

8124990 Ext 660, 284

Bari-Llizarov Orthopedic (Bio) Centre

House # 77 (New) 831 (Old), Road # 9/A (New) 19 (Old), Dhanmondi R/A

9120309, 8117876

Bari-Llizarov Orthopedic Centre

House # 831, Road # 19 (Old), Dhanmondi R/A

9120309, 8117876

Bdm Hospital

5/17, Humaund Road, Block # B, Mohammedpur

8113481

Bengal Nursing Home (Pvt.) Ltd.

70/C, Clke Circus kalabagan

8116007

Birdem

Shahbagh, Dhaka

8616641-50

Bnsb Dhaka Eye Hospital

Mirpur-1, Dhaka

8014476

Brain & Maind Hospital Ltd.

149/A, Airport Road, Farmgate, Baityl Shoraf Mosque Complex

8120710

Brighton Hospital Ltd

163, Sonargaon Road Hitirpool, Dhaka- 1205

8626901,9671186

Brighton Hospital Ltd.

169, Sonargaon road, Hatirpool

8626901-3

Bumrungrad Hospital

House- 154, Road- 11, Block- E, Banani, Dhaka.

8855254

Cancer Home

Cancer & Breast Clinic, GP-Cha, 149/1, Mohakhali

8815244

Care Madical Center Ltd.

41, Chamelibagh, Shantinagar

8318827, 9351190-11/23

Central Hospital Ltd.

House # 2, Road # 5, Green Road, Dhanmondi

9660015-19

Centre For Health And Development Medical Complex (Chd Medical Comple)

House # 16, Road # 16, Sector # 4, Uttara Model Town

8920670

Centre For The Rehabilitation Of The Paralysed (Crp)

Post CRP Chapin, Savar

7710464-5, 7711766

Chandshi Medical Centre

House # 9, Road # 27, Block # K, Banani

8821875, 9554571

China-Bangla Hospital (Jv) Ltd.

Plot # 1, Road # 7, Sector # 1, Uttara

8913674, 8913606

Cholera Hospital (Icddrb)

Dhaka, Mohkhali

871751-60,600171-8

Christian Medical Hospital

6/3, Nadda, Baridhara (North)

9886298, 8813375

City Dental College & Hospital

1085/1, Malibagh, Chowdhurypara

9341662-4, 8313305

City Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

69/1/1, Panthapath

8617852, 8623205

City Hospital Ltd

69/1/1, Panthpath Dhaka

8623205,8617852

CMH (Dhaka Cantonment)

Dhaka

882770

Community Eye Hospital

40, New Elephant Road (1st floor), Dhaka

 

Community Hospital

190/1, Wireless Rail Gate, Baramaghbazar, Dhaka

9351190-1
Fax 882-2-93387706

Community Maternity Hospital

22, Bijay Nagar

9358513

Control Of Diarrhoeal Disease Programme

1/13, Humayun Road, Block # B, Mohammadpur

9114574, 9114581

Crescent Gastroliver & General Hospital Ltd.

House- 60, Road- 8/A, Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka.

9116851

Crescent Hospital & Diagnostic Complex Ltd.

22/2, Babor Road, Mohammadpur

9117524, 8119775

Crescent Hospital & Dignostic

22/2, Babar Road, Mohammadpur, Dhaka

9119524, 8119775

Cresent Gestolever & General Hospital

House # 60, Road # 8/A, Dhanmondi R/A

9116851

Delta Medical Centre Ltd.

House # 20, Raod # 4, Dhanmondi R/A

8617141-3

Dhaka Community Hospital

190/1, Baro Moghbazar, Wireless Railgate

9351190-91

Dhaka Ent (Ear, Nose, Thot) Hospital

House # 56, Road # 4/A, Dhanmondi R/A

8617503, 9613986

Dhaka General Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

17, Hatkhola Road

7115351, 7116708

Dhaka Medical College & Hospital

Polashi, Dhaka

8616744, 9663429

Dhaka Monorogh Chinic

House # 13, Road # I Block # 11/A, Mirpur Dhaka

9005050

Dhaka National Hospital Ltd.

House # 55/1, Road # 27 (Old) 16 (New), Dhanmondi R/A

8122588

Dhaka Orthopaedic Hospital

843, Ring Road, Shamoli, Dhaka-1207

9112684, 912603

Dhaka Renal Centre & General Hospital

5 Green Corner, Green Road,Dhaka- 1205

8610928, 8621841-2

Dhaka Shishu Hospital

Sher-E-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka

8116061-62, 8114571-72

Dhanmondi Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

House # 19/E, Green Road, Middle of Road # 6 & 7, Dhanmondi

8628849

Diabetic Association Of Bangladesh

122, Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue, Shahbagh

8616641-50 Ext 2225

Diagnosis

44/C, Ahsad Avenue, Mohammadpur

814822

Diganta Anti Drug Hospital

House # 353, Road # 14, Block # B, Chanduaon R/A

031-671393

Doctors General Hospital

31/32, DIT Industrial Area, Postogola

7410731, 7413239

Dr. Salahudding Hospital

House # 37, Road # 9/A, Dhanmondi R/A

9122264, 9121779

Dr. Sultanas Poly Clinic

651, Shahinbagh, Tejgaon

9115244

Dushta Shasthya Hospital (D.S.K)

21/1, Khilji Road, Mohammadpur

8124952

Dustha Shasta Hospital

21/1, Khiljee Road, Mohammadpur,Dhaka- 1207

8124952

Eden Malticare Hospital

753, Satmajid Road Dhanmondi, Dhaka- 1209

8150507-10,8151506

Eden Multicare Hospital

753, Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi

8150507-10

Farabi General Hospital

Road # 14 (New), House # 8/3,Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka- 1209.

81222471,9140442

Fashion Eye Hospital Ltd.

98/6-A, Elephant Road, Bara Moghbazar

9338986, 9343961

Faud Al Khatib Hospital

Almas Tower, 282/1, 1st Colony, Majar Road, Mirpur

9007188, 9004317, 8013638

Federal Medical College Hospital Ltd

20, Link Road, Bangla Motor

8613097-8

Gastroliver Hospital & Research Institute

69/D, Green Road Panthpath,Dhaka-1205

8620960,8625393,8627853

General Hospital Ltd

House # 60, Road # 8/A,

Dhanmondi, R/A, Dhaka

9116851,91137181,9137182

General Medical Hospital (Pvt.) Ltd.

103, Elephant Road, Dhaka-1205

861932

Grain & Mind Hospital Ltd.

149/A, Airport Road, Farmgate, Baitus Sharaf Mosque Complex

8120710

Green Hospital

House # 31, Road # 6, Dhanmondi R/A

8612412

Green Land Hospital

Azampur, Uttara, Dhaka

8914175

Greenland Hospital

House # 4, Road # 4, Sector # 7, Uttara Model Town

8912663

Harun Eye Foundation & Green Hospital

Road # 6, House # 31, Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka

8612412, 8619068

Harun Green Hospital

House # 31, Road # 6, Dhanmondi R/A

8612412, 8619068

Hasnabad Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

South West Side of Buri Ganga Bridge, Hasnabad

7419977

Health And Hope Ltd.

152/1-H, Green Road, Panthopath (Green Road - Panthopath Crossing)

9145786

Holy Family R. C. Hospital

Eskaton Garden Road, Dhaka

8311721-25

Hyfia General Hospital

1/A, Adabar, Ring Road, Shamoli, Dhaka

9120519

I.R. Ltd.

House # 50, Road # 2A, Dhanmondi

8618085

Ibn Sina Hospital

House # 47, Road # 9/A, Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi

9128835-7, 9126625-5

Icddrb

Mohakhali

8811751-60

Idial General Hospital Ltd.

50/A, Shantinagar

9357385

Infertility Care & Research Centre

5/13, Humayn Road, Mohammadpur

9119462

Institute Of Chestdiseases Hospital

Mohakhali, Dhaka

8816268-72

Institute Of Child Health And Shishu Hospital

6/2, Barabag, Section # 2, Mirpur

8023894-5

International Hospital

6, Eskaton Garden, Moghbazar

9333739

Islami Bank Hospital

24/B, Outer Cercular Road, Dhaka

9336421

Islamia Arogya Sadan Ltd.

House # 35, Road # 1, Dhanmondi R/A

8631988

Islamia Eye Hospital

Farmgate, Dhaka

8112856, 319315, 9119315

Jahangirnagar Hospital Ltd.

34/1, Manir Hossain Lane, Swamibagh New Road, Dhajagonj

7125152-4

Khaliqun Nessa General Hospital

61, Becharam Dewri

7312449, 7313583

Lion Foundation Eye Hospital

Lions Bhaban, Begum Rokya Sarani, Agargoan, Dhaka

9131990, 9138711, 8110894

Made H Clinic

62, Lake Circus, Kalabagan

9112076, 8117043

Maf Air Support

House # 299, Lane # 4, DOHS, Baridhara

8810164

Malakunessa General Hospital

House # 50, Road # 4/A, Dhanmondi, Dhaka

 

Maula Buksh Sardar Charitable Hospital

24, Mohini Mohon Das Lane, Farashgonj

7120065

Medi Prime Orthopaedic Hospital

1/9, Humayan Road, College Gate,Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207

9139226

Medistine Hospital

218, Outer Circular Road,Moghbazar, Dhaka

9345003

Meditech General Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

House # 21, Road # 2, Nikunja # 2

8918345

Mental Health Care

19/12, Babar Road, Mohammadpur,Dhaka

 

Meriland Hospital

Sector # 1, Road # 13, House # 4, Uttara

8919481

Millennium Heart & Feneral Hospital

4/9, Block # F, Lalmatia, Mohammadpur

9122115

Mirpur General Hospital

House # 35, Road # 1, Sector # 10, Mirpur

8015444

Mirpur Holy Crescent Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

33, South Bishil, Mirpur-1, Dhaka

9000633

Modern Clinic Of Surgery & Midwifery

House # 5, Road # 11, Gulshan - 1

8821578

Modern Harbal

12, Shantinagar

9357693, 9358052

Mojibunnessa Eye Hospital Ltd.

House # 11 (New), Road # 28 (Old) 25 (New), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka

9130638, 9130701

Monoawara Hospital (Pvt)Ltd

54, Shidishwary Road, Dhaka

8318135,8318529

Monon Psychiatry Hospital

150, Mohammadpur (VIP Road),Dhaka

9131958

Monowara General Hospital

Golapbagh, Bishwroad

7519446, 7514717

Mother Care Hospital (Pvt.) Ltd.

3/10, Lalmatia, Block - A, Mirpur Road

9119355

Mounty Hospital

House # 67/A, Block - B, Lalmatia

8110864

Mujibunnesa Eye Hospital Ltd.

Hosue # 11, Road # 15 (New) 28 (Old), Dhanmondi R/A

9113057, 9130638

Mukti

Hosue # 2, Road # 2, Gulshan # 2, Dhaka

8827147, 606728

Munsor Ali Medical College

Sector # 11, Road # 19, Plot # 1/C, Chowrasta, Uttara

8917978

National Centre For Hearing & Speace

Mohakhali

8822007, 9881535

National Diagnostic Network (Ndn)

69-M, Green Raod, Panthapath

9664834, 8610647

National Heart Foundation Hospital

Mirpur, Dhaka

8014914

National Medical College & Hospital

53/1, Johnson Road, Dhaka

7117300

Neurology Foundation & Hospital

3/1, Lake Circus, Kalabagan, Dhaka-1205

8114846

New Al-Rajhi Hosital

32,green Road, Dhaka

8611213

New Mukti Clinic

301, Elephant Road, Dhaka

8611360

Nez-E-Noor Hospital (Pvt)Ltd.

House # 59, Road # 10/A (New), Dhanmondi, Dhaka.

9117439,9130152,
8123758,8118226

Nibedita Shishu Hospita Ltd.

11/1, Hair Street, Wari

7119473

Nirupom Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

House # 118, Road # 9/A, Dhanmondi R/A

8114429

North South Medical Centre

19/10, Babur Road, Block - B, Mohammadpur

9122111, 9126089

O. S. B Eye Hospital

Mirpur, Dhaka

9003088

Ogsb Maternity Hospital

Edgha Mohdhan Zoo Road Mirpur -1, Dhaka

9005490

Orthopedic Hospital

(Pangu Hospital) Shere-e-Bangla Nagar

9112150, 9114075

Padma General Hospital Ltd.

290, Sonargaon Road

9661528, 9662502

Pan Pacific Hospital & Training & Recerch Ins.

24, Outer Circular Road, South Shahjahanpur

9349794, 9351777

Parkway Healthcare Infomation Centre

Suite - B3, Level -10, Road # 53, Gulshan - 2

8850422, 8850423

Paroshmani

House # 46, Road # 2, Banani Dhaka- 1213

9889233,9893255

Penta Star Hospital

161/A, Kalabagan, Lakecircus

9113131

Platonic International

538/A, Pearabag, Boro Moghbazar

9342065

Proshanti Hospital Ltd.

6, Shantibagh, 3 Outer Citcular Road

8318699, 9348728

Rayel Hospital

House # 2, Road # 7, Block -C, Section -6 Mirpur Dhaka-1216

 

Renaissance Hosspital & Research Institute Ltd.

House # 60/A, Road # 4/A, Dhanmondi

9663677, 9664930

Rihd Pangu Hospital

Sher-E-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka

9119234-8

Rmc Hospital & Dignostic Complex Ltd

House # 19, Road # 5, Sector # 7 Uttara Dhaka-1230

8923904,8952157

Rmo, Ibn Sina Hospital

House # 68, Road # 15/A, Dhanmondi R/A

819513-5, 813709

Rog Mukti General Hospital

24, DIT Plot, Postogola

7410504

Royel Hospital (Pvt.) Ltd.

31, Eskaton Road

8313096

Rushmono General Hospital

208-9, Outer Circular Road,Moghbazar, Dhaka-1217

8317819, 8317606

S.P.R.C. Hospital

62, Bara Moghbazar

9339089, 9342744

Salvation Specialized Hospital

House No- 36,Road No- 3,Dhanmondi R/A

9674114

Samoly Orthopaedic Hospital

3/KA, RC Culture Housing Society, Ring Road, Shamoli, Dhaka

9121832

Saphena Hospital

111, DIT Road, Malibagh, Dhaka (House # 27, Road #, Dhanmondi, Dhaka)

 

Savar General Hospital

WAPDA Road (1st & 2nd flr.), Malancha, Savar

06226-848

Shaheed Suhrwardi Hospital

Sher-E-Banglanagar, Dhaka

8113478

Shamoli Orthoprdic General Hospital (Pvt) Ltd

3/Ka, P.C Culture Housing Society, Ring Road, Shamoli

9121832

Sharkari Karmachari Hospital

Dhaka

9668017

Shazada General Hospital

Block - D, 1/30, Kalwalapara, Mirpur - 1

8014860

Shefa Nurshing Home

12/10, Babur Road, Block # B, Mohammadpur

9111758, 8010916

Shishu Foundation Hospital

Bara Bagh, Mirpur

9001090

Shoboj Moti Shastha Seba

287/12C, Biswa Road, Khilgaon

9347649, 9347650

Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital

Dhaka

7319002-5,7312398,7117404

Sonargaon Health Care (Pvt.) Ltd.

House # 99 (1st Floor), Road # 11/A, (Satmosjid Road), Dhanmondi R/A

8118823

South Asian Hospital Ltd.

69/E, Green Road, Panthpath, Dhaka

9665852

South View Hospital (Pvt.) Ltd.

House # 1, Main Road # 11, Block - B, Section # 10, Mirpur

8018065

Squar Diagnostic & Hospital Services Ltd

Ak Complex (2nd Floor) 19, Green Road Dhaka-1205

8616389

Stoncrast Hospital

House # 362/2, Road # 27 (Old) 16 (New), Dhanmondi

9129402, 9137132

Stone Cursh Hospital

House # 48, Road # 4/A, Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka

9668482, 9660360

The Barakah General Hospital Ltd.

937, Outer Circula Road, Razarbagh

9346265, 9337534

The Kidney Hospital And Dialysis Centre

161/A, Kalabagan, Dhaka - 1205

8122019,8123056

The Mark Ent & General Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

Plot # A/3, Section # 14 Mirpur, Dhaka

9871527, 9872241

The Specialized Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

House # 40, Road # 10/A,Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka

9118523, 8114230, 8110263

Theol Medical College Hospital

142-143, Cteen Road

9128286, 9124627

Trauma & Orthopaedic Hospital

House # 17, Road # 28(Old),15(New) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka

 

Uro Care Medical Center

House # 73, Road # 9/A, Dhanmondi

9126113, 9113694

Uttara Central Hospital

House # 1, Road # 7, Sector # 1, Uttara Model Town

8911551, 8918778

Vision Eye Hospital

House # 27, Road # 27 (Old), Dhanmondi

8113302

Women And Children'S Hospital Pvt.Ltd

House # 48/6, Road # 9/A Dhanmondi, Dhaka

9115458,9121077

Yamagata Dhaka Friendsship Hospital

6/7, Block -A Lalmatia Dhaka

9129354

Z.H. Sikder Women'S College & Hospital (Pvt) Ltd

Monica Estate, (West side of Dhanmondi)

8115951, 8113313

 

Chittagong

Al-Zahar Hospital Ltd.

1062, Love Lane (1st Floor)

619378, 624494

B.B.M.H

U.S.T.C Foy's lake

031-659070-7

Centre Point Hospital (Pvt)Ltd.

100, Momin Road, Chittagong - 4000

639025 - 7

Chattagram Metropoliton Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

948, O.R. Nizam Road

031-651242

Chittagong Diabetic Hospital

427, Ansari Mansion, Batali Road

031-617495

Chittagong General Hospital

Andarkillah, Ctg

611407

Chittagong Maa-O-Shishu Hospital

Agrabad, Ctg.

711236, 500063

Chittagong Medical College & Hospital K.B

Fazlul Kader Road

619597

Chittagong Poly Chinic (Pvt.) Ltd

33, Panchlaish R/A

031-650911, 653094

Chittagram Metropolitan Hospital

487/B, O.R. Nizam Road, Ctg.

620634, 637235

Combined Military Hospital

Chittagong Cantt. Ctg.

681551-8

Desh Medical Services

31, K.B. Fazlul Kader Road, Panchlaish R/A

031-651591, 654960

General Hospital

Anderkillah

031-220404, 224634

Halishahar General Hospital

1733/A P Croad, West Rumpur Sabuj bag

031-715166

Holy Crescent Hospital (Pvt.) Ltd.

500/A, Zakir Hos';ain Road, Khulshi, Ctg.

620025-8

Institute Of Community Opthalmology

729, Pahartoly

031-615710

Lions Eye Hospital

O. R. Nizam Road, Ctg.

616652

Lions General Hospital

Zakir Hossain Road, Nasirabad, Ctg.

622443

Ma Moni Hospital

37, K.B Fazlu Kader Road

031-651558, 651648

Medicare Services Ltd

Lalkhan Bazar

031-616905, 637391

Mouni Hospital & Diagnostic Centre

1160, Surson Road, Askardegi North

031-623262, 623354

National Hospital Chittagong

30, Mehdibag

031-623713, 623753

National Hospital Ctittagong

30, Mehdibagh, Ctg

623713, 623753

Panorama Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.

99/A, Chatteswary Road

031-613874, 619921, 630549

Public Hospital Private Limited

1226, Chatteswart Road

031-635744

Upasham Hospital

45, Panchalaish R/A

031-654230

Narayanganj

Ibna Sina Clinic

16, Don Chamber

9713890

Life General Hospital

111, B.B Raod

7610500

Medistar General Hospital (Pvt.) Ltd

143, B.B Road

9716777

Rizia General Hospital

47/11, B.B Road

4716210

Cox`s Bazar

Cox'S Bazar Baitush Sharaf Hospital

Baitush Sharaf

None

Doctors Chamber

Pan Bazar Road

0341-4644, 3355, 4733

Fouad-Al-Khateeb Hospital

Pan Bazar Road Point, Main Road

0341-4321, 4674