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Diseases & Treatment PDF Print E-mail
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Diseases & Treatment------


rare disease, also referred to as an orphan disease, is any disease that affects a s

mall percentage of the population.

Most rare diseases are genetic, and thus are present throughout the person's entire life, even if symptoms do not immediately appear. Many rare diseases appear early in life,

and about 30 percent of children with rare diseases will die before reaching their fifth birthday.[1] With a single diagnosed patient only, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency is presently considered the rarest genetic disease.

No single cutoff number has been agreed upon for which a disease is considered rare. A disease may be considered rare in one part of the world, or in a particular group of

people, but still be common in another.

There is no single, widely accepted definition for rare diseases. Some definitions rely solely

on the number of people living with a disease, and other definitions include other factors,

such as the existence of adequate treatments or the severity of the disease.

In the United States, the Rare Disease Act of 2002 defines rare disease strictly

according to prevalence, specifically "any disease or condition that affects less than 200,000 persons in the United States,"[2] or about 1 in 1,500 people. This definition is essentially like that of the Orphan Drug Act of 1983, a federal law that was written to encourage research into rare diseases and possible cures.

In Japan, the legal definition of a rare disease is one that affects fewer than 50,000

patients in Japan, or about 1 in 2,500 people.[3]

However, the European Commission on Public Health defines rare diseases as "life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence that

special combined efforts are needed to address them."[4] The term low prevalence is

later defined as generally meaning fewer than 1 in 2,000 people. Diseases that are statistically rare, but not also life-threatening, chronically debilitating, or inadequately treated, are excluded from their definition.

The definitions used in the medical literature and by national health plans are similarly divided, with definitions ranging from 1/1,000 to 1/200,000.[3]

Relationship to orphan diseases

Because of definitions that include reference to treatment availability, a lack of resources, and severity of the disease, some people[who?] prefer the term orphan disease and use

it as a synonym for rare disease.[3] The orphan drug movement was begun in the United States.[3]

Others distinguish between the two terms. For example, the European Organization for Rare Diseases (EURORDIS) lumps both rare diseases and neglected diseases into a

larger category of orphan diseases.[5]

The United States' Orphan Drug Act includes both rare diseases and any non-rare

diseases "for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available in the United States a drug for such disease or condition will [be] recovered from sales in the United States of such drug" as orphan diseases.[6]


Prevalence (number of people living with a disease at a given moment), rather than incidence (number of new diagnoses in a given year), is used to describe the impact

of rare diseases. The Global Genes Project estimates there are some 350 million people worldwide currently affected with a rare disease.

The European Organization for Rare Diseases (EURORDIS) estimates that there exist between 5,000 and 7,000 distinct rare diseases. Although each individual disease is rare, the sheer number of individual rare diseases results in between 6% and 8% of the population of the European Union being affected by a rare disease.[5]

Rare diseases can vary in prevalence between populations, so a disease that is rare in

some populations may be common in others. This is especially true of genetic diseases and infectious diseases. An example is cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease: it is rare in most parts of Asia but relatively common in Europe and in populations of European descent. In smaller communities, the founder effect can result in a disease that is very rare worldwide being prevalent within the smaller community. Many infectious diseases are prevalent in a given geographic area but rare everywhere else. Other diseases, such as many rare forms of cancer, have no apparent pattern of distribution but are simply rare. The classification

of other conditions depends in part on the population being studied: All forms of cancer in children are generally considered rare, because so few children develop cancer, but the same cancer in adults may be more common.

About 40 rare diseases have a far higher prevalence in Finland; these are known collectively as the Finnish disease heritage.


Rare diseases usually are genetic,[7] hence chronic. EURORDIS estimates that at least 80% of them have identified genetic origins.[8] Other rare diseases are the result of infections and allergies or due to degenerative and proliferative causes.

Classification of a disease's rarity also depends on the population being studied. Every

form of cancer is rare among children,[9] but some forms are common among adults.

Symptoms of some rare diseases may appear at birth or in childhood, whereas others

only appear once adulthood is reached.

Research publications emphasize rare diseases that are chronic or incurable, although many short-term medical conditions are also rare diseases.[10]


The National Organization for Rare Disorders was established in 1983 by individuals and families with rare diseases.[11][12] The NIH's Office of Rare Diseases was established by H.R. 4013 in 2002.[13] H.R. 4014, signed the same day, refers to the "Rare Diseases Orphan Product Development Act".[14] Similar initiatives have been proposed in Europe.[15] Genetic Alliance, established in 1986, lists information and support groups for approximately 1200 rare diseases.[16] The Global Genes Project, started by the Children's Rare Disease Network, is creating greater public awareness, supporting the millions of families affected by rare disease through an online community & collaborative portal and other tools, and are funding innovations to support rare disease research.

The Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders (CORD) is the national network of organizations who represent people affected by rare disorders within Canada. CORD's intention is to provide a strong common voice advocating for a healthcare system and

health policy for those with rare disorders.[17]

The first Rare Disease Day was held in Europe and Canada in February 2008 to raise awareness for rare diseases.[18][19] It is intended to be observed on the last day of February every year.[20]

Patients with Rare Diseases in Greece are represented by the Greek Alliance of Rare Diseases .



A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. It is often

construed to be a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.[1][2]

It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases. In humans, "disease" is often used

more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, and/or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact

with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories. Diseases usually affect people not only physically,

but also emotionally, as contracting and living with many diseases can alter one's perspective on life, and their personality.

Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. There are four main types of disease: pathogenic disease, deficiency disease, hereditary disease, and physiological disease.

  • Diseases can also be classified as communicable and non-communicable disease.


In many cases, the terms disease, disorder, morbidity and illness are used interchangeably.[3] In some situations, specific terms are considered preferable.


The term disease broadly refers to any condition that impairs normal function. Commonly, this term is used to refer specifically to infectious diseases, which are clinically evident diseases that result from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as prions. An infection that does not and will not produce clinically evident impairment of normal functioning, such as the presence of the normal bacteria and yeasts in the gut, is not considered a disease; by contrast, an infection that is asymptomatic during its incubation period, but expected to produce symptoms later, is usually considered a disease. Non-infectious diseases are all other diseases, including most forms of cancer, heart disease, and genetic disease.


Illness and sickness are generally used as synonyms for disease.[4] However, this term is occasionally used to refer specifically to the patient's personal experience of their disease.[5][6] In this model, it is possible for a person to be diseased without being ill (to have an objectively definable, but asymptomatic, medical condition), and to be ill without being diseased (such as when a person perceives a normal experience as a medical condition,

or medicalizes a non-disease situation in his or her life). Illness is often not due to infection but a collection of evolved responses, sickness behavior, by the body which aids the clearing of infection. Such aspects of illness can include lethargy, depression, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and inability to concentrate.[7][8][9]


In medicine, a disorder is a functional abnormality or disturbance.[10] Medical disorders can be categorized into mental disorders, physical disorders, genetic disorders, emotional and behavioral disorders, and functional disorders.

The term disorder is often considered more value-neutral and less stigmatizing than the terms disease or illness, and therefore is preferred terminology in some circumstances.

In mental health, the term mental disorder is used as a way of acknowledging the complex interaction of biological, social, and psychological factors in psychiatric conditions. However, the term disorder is also used in many other areas of medicine, primarily to identify physical disorders that are not caused by infectious organisms, such as metabolic disorders.

Medical condition

A medical condition is a broad term that includes all diseases and disorders, but can also include injuries and normal health situations, such as pregnancy, that might affect a person's health, benefit from medical assistance, or have implications for medical treatments. While the term medical condition generally includes mental illnesses, in some contexts the term

is used specifically to denote any illness, injury, or disease except for mental illnesses. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the widely used psychiatric manual that defines all mental disorders, uses the term general medical condition to refer to all diseases, illnesses, and injuries except for mental disorders.[11] This usage is also commonly seen in the psychiatric literature. Some health insurance policies also define a medical condition as any illness, injury, or disease except for psychiatric illnesses.[12]

As it is more value-neutral than terms like disease, the term medical condition is sometimes preferred by people with health issues that they do not consider to be deleterious, such as pregnancy. On the other hand, by emphasizing the medical nature

of the condition, this term is sometimes rejected, such as by proponents of the

autism rights movement.

The term medical condition is used as a synonym for medical state, where it describes a patient's current state, as seen from a medical standpoint. This usage is seen in statements that describe a patient as being "in critical condition", for example.


Morbidity (from Latin morbidus, meaning "sick, unhealthy") is a diseased state, disability, or poor health due to any cause.[13] The term may be used to refer to the existence of any form of disease, or to the degree that the health condition affects the patient. Among severely ill patients, the level of morbidity is often measured by ICU scoring systems.

Comorbidity is the simultaneous presence of two medical conditions, such as a person

with schizophrenia and substance abuse.

In epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity rate can refer to either the incidence rate, or the prevalence of a disease or medical condition. This measure of sickness is contrasted with the mortality rate of a condition, which is the proportion of people dying during a given time interval.


In an infectious disease, the incubation period is the time between infection and the appearance of symptoms. The latency period is the time between infection and the ability

of the disease to spread to another person, which may precede, follow, or be simultaneous with the appearance of symptoms. Some viruses also exhibit a dormant phase, called viral latency, in which the virus hides in the body in an inactive state. For example, varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in the acute phase; after recovery from chickenpox, the virus may remain dormant in nerve cells for many years, and later cause herpes zoster (shingles).

A cure is the end of a medical condition or a treatment that is very likely to end it, while remission refers to the disappearance, possibly temporarily, of symptoms. Complete remission is the best possible outcome for incurable diseases.

A flare-up can refer to either the recurrence of symptoms or an onset of more severe symptoms.

A refractory disease is a disease that resists treatment, especially an individual case that resists treatment more than is normal for the specific disease in question.

Progressive disease is a disease whose typical natural course is the worsening of the disease until death, serious debility, or organ failure occurs. Slowly progressive diseases

are also chronic diseases; many are also degenerative diseases. The opposite of progressive disease is stable disease or static disease: a medical condition that exists,

but does not get better or worse.


A localized disease is one that affects only one part of the body, such as athlete's foot or

an eye infection.

A disseminated disease has spread to other parts; with cancer, this is usually called metastatic disease.

A systemic disease is a disease that affects the entire body, such as influenza or high blood pressure.

Causes and transmissibility: Transmission (medicine)

Only some diseases such as influenza are contagious and commonly believed to be infectious. The micro-organisms that cause these diseases are known as pathogens and include varieties of bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi. Infectious diseases can be transmitted, e.g. by hand-to-mouth contact with infectious material on surfaces, by bites of insects or other carriers of the disease, and from contaminated water or food (often via faecal contamination), etc. In addition, there are sexually transmitted diseases. In some cases, micro-organisms that are not readily spread from person to person play a role,

while other diseases can be prevented or ameliorated with appropriate nutrition or other lifestyle changes.

Some diseases, such as most (but not all) forms of cancer, heart disease and mental disorders, are non-infectious diseases. Many non-infectious diseases have a partly or completely genetic basis (see genetic disorder) and may thus be transmitted from one generation to another.

Social determinants of health are the social conditions in which people live which

determine their health. Illnesses are generally related to social, economic, political, and environmental circumstances. Social determinants of health have been recognized by several health organizations such as the Public Health Agency of Canada and the World Health Organization to greatly influence collective and personal well-being.

When the cause of a disease is poorly understood, societies tend to mythologize the

disease or use it as a metaphor or symbol of whatever that culture considers to be evil.

For example, until the bacterial cause of tuberculosis was discovered in 1882, experts variously ascribed the disease to heredity, a sedentary lifestyle, depressed mood, and overindulgence in sex, rich food, or alcohol—all the social ills of the time.[14]

Burdens of disease

Disease burden is the impact of a health problem in an area measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.

There are several measures used to quantify the burden imposed by diseases on people. The years of potential life lost (YPLL) is a simple estimate of the number of years that a person's life was shortened due to a disease. For example, if a person dies at the age

of 65 from a disease, and would probably have lived until age 80 without that disease,

then that disease has caused a loss of 15 years of potential life. YPLL measurements

do not account for how disabled a person is before dying, so the measurement treats a person who dies suddenly and a person who died at the same age after decades of illness as equivalent. In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 932 million years

of potential life were lost to premature death.[15]

The quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metrics

are similar, but take into account whether the person was healthy after diagnosis. In addition to the number of years lost due to premature death, these measurements add

part of the years lost to being sick. Unlike YPLL, these measurements show the burden imposed on people who are very sick, but who live a normal lifespan. A disease that has high morbidity, but low mortality, will have a high DALY and a low YPLL. In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 1.5 billion disability-adjusted life years were

lost to disease and injury.[15]


Disease category↓

Percent of all YPLLs lost, worldwide[15]↓

Percent of all DALYs lost, worldwide[15]↓

Percent of all YPLLs lost, Europe[15]↓

Percent of all DALYs lost, Europe[15]↓

Percent of all YPLLs lost, US and Canada[15]↓

Percent of all DALYs lost, US and Canada[15]↓

Infectious and parasitic diseases, especially lower respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria







Neuropsychiatric conditions, e.g. depression







Injuries, especially motor vehicle accidents







Cardiovascular diseases, principally heart attacks and stroke







Premature birth and other perinatal deaths














Social significance of disease

Obesity was a status symbol in Renaissance culture: "The Tuscan General Alessandro del Borro", attributed to Andrea Sacchi, 1645.[16] It is now generally regarded as a disease.

How society responds to disease is the subject of medical sociology.

A condition may be considered to be a disease in some cultures or eras but not in others. For example, obesity can represent wealth and abundance, and is a status symbol in famine-prone areas and some places hard-hit by HIV/AIDS.[17] Epilepsy is considered a sign of spiritual gifts among the Hmong people.[18]

Sickness confers the social legitimization of certain benefits, such as illness benefits, work avoidance, and being looked after by others. The person who is sick takes on a social

role called the sick role. A person who responds to a dreaded disease, such as cancer,

in a culturally acceptable fashion may be publicly and privately honored with higher social status.[19] In return for these benefits, the sick person is obligated to seek treatment and work to become well once more. As a comparison, consider pregnancy, which is not usually interpreted as a disease or sickness, even if the mother and baby may both benefit from medical care.

Most religions grant exceptions from religious duties to people who are sick. For example, one whose life would be endangered by fasting on Yom Kippur or during Ramadan is exempted from the requirement, or even forbidden from participating. People who are sick are also exempted from social duties. For example, ill health is the only socially acceptable reason for an American to refuse an invitation to the White House.[20]

The identification of a condition as a disease, rather than as simply a variation of human structure or function, can have significant social or economic implications. The contro-versial recognitions as diseases of post-traumatic stress disorder, also known as

"Soldier's heart", "shell shock", and "combat fatigue;" repetitive motion injury or repetitive stress injury (RSI); and Gulf War syndrome has had a number of positive and negative effects on the financial and other responsibilities of governments, corporations and institutions towards individuals, as well as on the individuals themselves. The social implication of viewing aging as a disease could be profound, though this classification is

not yet widespread. Lepers were a group of afflicted individuals who were historically shunned and the term "leper" still evokes social stigma. Fear of disease can still be a widespread social phenomenon, though not all diseases evoke extreme social stigma.

Social standing and economic status affect health. Diseases of poverty are diseases that

are associated with poverty and low social status; diseases of affluence are diseases that are associated with high social and economic status. Which diseases are associated with which states varies according to time, place, and technology. Some diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be associated with both poverty (poor food choices) and affluence (long lifespans and sedentary lifestyles), through different mechanisms. The term

diseases of civilization describes diseases that are more common among older people.

For example, cancer is far more common in societies in which most members live until

they reach the age of 80 than in societies in which most members die before they reach

the age of 50.

There are several severe or unbearable diseases such as ondine's curse, trigeminal neuralgia, Lou Gehrig's, Huntington's or Ebola, which have led to people asking why

God would allow that. This philosophy is called the problem of evil.[21]

Language of disease

An illness narrative is a way of organizing a medical experience into a coherent story

that illustrates the experience.

People use metaphors to make sense of their experiences with disease. The metaphors move disease from an objective thing that exists to an affective experience. The most popular metaphors draw on military concepts: Disease is an enemy that must be feared, fought, battled, and routed. The patient or the physician is a warrior, rather than a

passive victim or bystander. The agents of communicable diseases are invaders; non-communicable diseases constitute internal insurrection. Because the threat is urgent, perhaps a matter of life and death, unthinkably radical, even oppressive, measures are society's and the patient's moral duty as they courageously mobilize to struggle against destruction. The War on Cancer is an example.[22]

Another class of metaphors describes the experience of illness as a journey: The person travels to or from a place of disease, and changes himself, discovers new information, or increases his experience along the way. He may travel "on the road to recovery" or make changes to "get on the right track".[22] Some are explicitly immigration-themed: the

patient has been exiled from the home territory of health to the land of the ill, changing identity and relationships in the process.[23]

Some metaphors are disease-specific. Slavery is a common metaphor for addictions:

The alcoholic is enslaved by drink, and the smoker is captive to nicotine. Some cancer patients treat the loss of their hair from chemotherapy as a metonymy or metaphor for all the losses caused by the disease.[22]

Some diseases are used as metaphors for social ills: "Cancer" is a common description for anything that is endemic and destructive in society, such as poverty, injustice, or racism. AIDS was seen as a divine judgment for moral decadence, and only by purging itself from the "pollution" of the "invader" could society become healthy again.[22] Authors in the 19th century commonly used tuberculosis as a symbol and a metaphor for transcendence. Victims of the disease were portrayed in literature as having risen above daily life to become ephemeral objects of spiritual or artistic achievement. In the 20th century, the

same disease became the emblem of poverty, squalor, and other social problems.[23]

Epidemiology: Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of the factors that cause or encourage diseases. Some diseases are more common in certain geographic areas, among people with certain genetic or socioeconomic characteristics, or at different times of the year.

Epidemiology is considered a cornerstone methodology of public health research, and is highly regarded in evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for disease. In the study of communicable and non-communicable diseases, the work of epidemiologists ranges from outbreak investigation to study design, data collection and analysis including

the development of statistical models to test hypotheses and the documentation of results for submission to peer-reviewed journals. Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a syndemic. Epidemiologists rely on a number of other scientific disciplines such as biology (to better understand disease processes), biostatistics (the current raw information available), Geographic Information Science (to store data and map disease patterns) and social science disciplines (to better understand proximate and distal risk factors).

In studying diseases, epidemiology faces the challenge of defining them. Especially for poorly understood diseases, different groups might use significantly different definitions. Without an agreed-upon definition, different researchers will find very different numbers

of cases and characteristics of the disease.[24]

Prevention: Preventive medicine

Many diseases and disorders can be prevented through a variety of means. These include sanitation, proper nutrition, adequate exercise, vaccinations, and other self-care and public health measures.

Treatments: Therapy

Medical therapies or treatments are efforts to cure or improve a disease or other health problem. In the medical field, therapy is synonymous with the word "treatment". Among psychologists, the term may refer specifically to psychotherapy or "talk therapy".

Common treatments include medications, surgery, medical devices, and self-care. Treatments may be provided by an organized health care system, or informally, by the patient or family members.

A prevention or preventive therapy is a way to avoid an injury, sickness, or disease in the first place. A treatment or cure is applied after a medical problem has already started. A treatment attempts to improve or remove a problem, but treatments may not produce permanent cures, especially in chronic diseases. Cures are a subset of treatments that reverse diseases completely or end medical problems permanently. Many diseases that cannot be completely cured are still treatable.Pain management (also called pain medicine) is that branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach to the relief of pain and improvement in the quality of life of those living with pain[25]

Treatment for medical emergencies must be provided promptly, often through an

emergency department or, in less critical situations, through an urgent care facility.

See also--List of acronyms on diseases and disorders---List of cutaneous conditions---Lists of diseases----Rare disease----Plant pathology---Sociology of health and illness


Lists of Known-Diseases

around us for identify.....

§ List of autoimmune diseases

§ List of cancer types

§ List of communication disorders

§ List of cutaneous conditions

§ List of endocrine diseases

§ List of eye diseases and disorders

§ List of genetic disorders

§ List of infectious diseases

§ List of intestinal diseases

§ List of neurological disorders

§ List of notifiable diseases - diseases

that should be reported to public health officials

§ List of voice disorders

§ List of vulvovaginal disorders

§ Mental illness (alphabetical list)

§ List of autism-related topics

§ List of eating disorders

§ List of mood disorders

§ List of personality disorders

§ List of human diseases associated with infectious pathogens

§ Adenoid disorders

§ Adrenal disorders

§ Allergic disorders

§ Anorectal disorders

§ Antisocial personality disorder

§ Anxiety disorders

§ Appendix disorders

§ Articulation disorders

§ Attention deficit disorder

§ Autonomic nerve disorders

Balance disorder

§ Behavioral disorders

§ Bleeding disorders

§ Cartilage disorders

§ Cephalic disorders

§ Chromosomal disorders

§ Clotting disorders

§ Communication disorders

§ Congenital disorders

§ Conjunctival disorders

§ Connective tissue disorders

§ Cornea disorders

§ Delusional disorders

§ Depressive disorders

§ Disc disorders

§ Dissociative disorders

§ Digestive disorders

§ Eating disorders

§ Female genital disorders

§ Fluency disorders

§ Hearing disorders

§ Heritable disorders of connective tissue

§ Iatrogenic disorders

§ Immune disorders

§ Impulse control disorders

§ Knoxville disorder

§ Language disorders

§ Learning disorders

§ Lens disorders

§ Metabolic disorders

§ Mood disorders

§ Nervous system disorders

§ Neuronal migration disorders

§ Orthopedic disorders

§ Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

§ Peritoneum disorders

§ Personality disorders

§ Pervasive developmental disorders

§ Psychiatric disorders, i.e., mental illness

§ Psychoactive substance abuse disorders

§ Psychological disorders, i.e., mental illness

§ Psychotic disorders

§ Puerperal disorders

§ Refractive eye disorders

§ Repetitive motion disorders

Sexual dysfunction

§ Sleep disorders

§ Soft tissue disorders

§ Somatoform disorders

§ Spastic disorders

§ Speech disorders

§ Spinal cord disorders

§ Systemic disorders

§ Testicle disorders

§ Thymus disorders

§ Thyroid disorders

§ Tonsil disorders

§ Translocation chromosome disorders

§ Triplet repeat genetic disorders

§ Vein disorders

§ Voice disorders

§ X chromosome disorders

§ Y chromosome disorders

Therapy or treatment, is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following adiagnosis. In the medical field, it is synonymous with the word "treatment". Among psychologists, the term may refer specifically to psychotherapy or "talk therapy".

Preventive therapy or prophylactic therapy is a treatment that is intended to prevent a medical condition from occurring. For example, many vaccines prevent infectious diseases. An abortive therapy is a treatment that is intended to stop a medical condition from progressing any further. A medication taken at the earliest signs of a disease, such as at the very symptoms of a migraine headache, is an abortive therapy.

supportive therapy is one that does not treat or improve the underlying condition, but instead increases the patient's comfort.[1] Supportive treatment may be used in palliative care.

Overtreatment is treatment that is unnecessary or disproportionate to the situation. For example, the treatment of a condition that causes no symptoms and will go away on its own

is overtreatment. Similarly, extensive treatment for a condition that could be remedied with

very limited treatment is overtreatment. Overtreatment may be caused by overdiagnosis, the identification of harmless abnormalities.

Adverse effectsAdverse drug reaction and Adverse effect

In addition to (or in place of) the intended therapeutic effect of a treatment, a therapist may cause undesired (adverse) effects as well. When an adverse effect is weaker than the therapeutic effect, one commonly speaks of a "side effect".

An adverse effect may result from an unsuitable or incorrect dosage or procedure (which could be due to medical error). Some adverse effects occur only when starting,

increasing or discontinuing a treatment. Using a drug or other medical intervention which is contraindicated may increase the risk of adverse effects. Patients sometimes quit a therapy because of its adverse effects. The severity of adverse effects ranges from

nausea to death. Common adverse effects include alteration inbody weight, change in enzyme levels, loss of function, or pathological change detected at the microscopic, macroscopic or physiological level.

Adverse effects may cause a reversible or irreversible change, including an increase or decrease in the susceptibility of the individual to other chemicals, foods, or procedures (e.g. drug interaction).

Difference between preventions, treatments, and cures

prevention or preventive measure is a way to avoid an injury, sickness, or disease in

the first place, and generally it will not help someone who is already ill (though there are exceptions). For instance, many babies in developed countries are given a polio vaccination soon after they are born, which prevents them from contracting polio. But the vaccination does not work on patients who already have polio. A treatment or cure is applied after a medical problem has already started.

A treatment treats a problem, and may lead to its cure, but treatments often ameliorate

a problem only for as long as the treatment is continued, especially in chronic diseases. For example, there is no cure for AIDS, but treatments are available to slow down the harm done by HIV and delay the fatality of the disease. Treatments don't always work. For example, chemotherapy is a treatment for some types of cancer. In some cases, chemotherapy may cause a cure, but not in all cases for all cancers. When nothing can be done to stop or improve a medical condition, beyond efforts to make the patient more comfortable, the condition is said to beuntreatable. Some untreatable conditions naturally resolve on their own; others do not.

Cures are a subset of treatments that reverse illnesses completely or end medical problems permanently. Many diseases that cannot be cured are still treatable.

Types of therapies

By therapy composition

Treatments can be classified according to the thing used for treatment:

by matter

§ by drugpharmacotherapychemotherapymesotherapy

§ by medical device

§ by genegene therapy

§ by goldchrysotherapy (aurotherapy)

§ by hormonehormone therapy

§ by organismbiotherapy as

§ by ozoneozonotherapy

§ by saltspeleotherapy

§ by serum : serotherapy

§ by waterhydrotherapy

by energy

§ by electric energy

§ by lightphototherapy

§ by mechanicalmanual therapy as massotherapy & therapy by exercise as in physiotherapy

§ by heatthermotherapy

§ by coldcryotherapy

by human interaction

§ by counseling, such as psychotherapy

§ by education

§ by exercise, massage therapy, or physical therapy

§ by lifestyle modifications, such as eating less unhealthful food or maintaining a predictable sleeping schedule

by meditation

First or second line

First-line therapy is the initial treatment used, also called induction therapy, primary therapy, and primary treatment.[2] Second-line therapy, on the other hand, is treatment that is given when initial treatment (first-line therapy) doesn’t work, or stops working.[3]




We're indebted to wikipedia for some references of articles including some world-wide thinkers










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Last Updated on Saturday, 22 September 2012 03:10