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Hormonal Disorder

Hormones are a most important organic bi-products into our body to perform very useful bio-chemical functions for our excellent living theme.

 

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system. The branch of medicine associated with endocrine disorders is known as endocrinology.

Types of endocrine disease

Broadly speaking, endocrine disorders may be subdivided into three groups:

  1. Endocrine gland hyposecretion (leading to hormone deficiency)
  2. Endocrine gland hypersecretion (leading to hormone excess)
  3. Tumours (benign or malignant) of endocrine glands

Endocrine disorders are often quite complex, involving a mixed picture of hyposecretion and hypersecretion because of the feedback mechanisms involved in the endocrine system. For example, most forms of hyperthyroidism are associated with an excess of thyroid hormone and a low level of thyroid stimulating hormone.

List of endocrine diseases

Adrenal disorders

Glucose homeostasis disorders

Calcium homeostasis disorders and Metabolic bone disease

Pituitary gland disorders

Posterior pituitary

Anterior pituitary

Sex hormone disorders

Tumours of the endocrine glands not mentioned elsewhere

See also separate organs

[edit] History

Timme's syndrome is a historical term for pluriglandular disease ( disease involving a number of endocrine organs ) first described in 1919.[1]

See also

Hormone therapy, or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment. Treatment with hormone antagonists may also referred to as hormonal therapy. Wikipedia has the following articles regarding this topic:

 

Cancer

Aging

reassignment

Intersex conditions

Hormonal deficiency

Psychological treatment

 

 

The following is a list of hormones found in humans. Spelling is not uniform for many hormones. Current North America and international usage is estrogen, gonadotropin, while British usage retains the Greek diphthong in estrogen and favors the earlier spelling gonadotrophin (from trophē ‘nourishment, sustenance’ rather than tropē ‘turning, change’).

Structure↓

Name↓

Abbrev-
iation
↓

Tissue↓

Cells↓

Mechanism↓

Target Tissue↓

Effect↓

amine - tryptophan

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine)

MT

pineal gland

pinealocyte

antioxidant and causes drowsiness

amine - tryptophan

Serotonin

5-HT

CNS, GI tract

enterochromaffin cell

Controls mood, appetite, and sleep

amine - tyrosine

Thyroxine (or tetraiodothyronine) (a thyroid hormone)

T4

thyroid gland

thyroid epithelial cell

direct

less active form of thyroid hormone: increase the basal metabolic rate & sensitivity to catecholamines,

affect protein synthesis

amine - tyrosine

Triiodothyronine (a thyroid hormone)

T3

thyroid gland

thyroid epithelial cell

direct

potent form of thyroid hormone: increase the basal metabolic rate & sensitivity to catecholamines, affect protein synthesis

amine - tyrosine (cat)

Epinephrine (or adrenaline)

EPI

adrenal medulla

chromaffin cell

Fight-or-flight response:

Boosts the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles (by increasing heart rate and stroke volume, vasodilation, increasing catalysis of glycogen in liver, breakdown of lipids in fat cells. dilate the pupils Suppress non-emergency bodily processes (e.g. digestion) Suppress immune system

amine - tyrosine (cat)

Norepinephrine (or noradrenaline)

NRE

adrenal medulla

chromaffin cell

Fight-or-flight response:

Boosts the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles (by increasing heart rate and stroke volume, vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure, breakdown of lipids in fat cells. Increase skeletal muscle readiness.

amine - tyrosine (cat)

Dopamine (or prolactin inhibiting hormone)

DPM, PIH or DA

kidney, hypothalamus

Chromaffin cells in kidney
Dopamine neurons of the arcuate nucleus in hypothalamus

Increase heart rate and blood pressure
Inhibit release of prolactin and TRH from anterior pituitary

peptide

Antimullerian hormone (or mullerian inhibiting factor or hormone)

AMH

testes

Sertoli cell

Inhibit release of prolactin and TRH from anterior pituitary

peptide

Adiponectin

Acrp30

adipose tissue

peptide

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (or corticotropin)

ACTH

anterior pituitary

corticotrope

cAMP

synthesis of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and androgens) in adrenocortical cells

peptide

Angiotensinogen and angiotensin

AGT

liver

IP3

vasoconstriction

release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex dipsogen.

peptide

Antidiuretic hormone (or vasopressin, arginine vasopressin)

ADH

posterior pituitary

Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons in hypothalamus
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in posterior pituitary

varies

retention of water in kidneys
moderate vasoconstriction
Release ACTH in anterior pituitary

peptide

Atrial-natriuretic peptide (or atriopeptin)

ANP

heart

cGMP

peptide

Calcitonin

CT

thyroid gland

parafollicular cell

cAMP

Construct bone, reduce blood Ca2+

peptide

Cholecystokinin

CCK

duodenum

Release of digestive enzymes from pancreas

Release of bile from gallbladder hunger suppressant

peptide

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRH

hypothalamus

cAMP

Release ACTH from anterior pituitary

peptide

Erythropoietin

EPO

kidney

Extraglomerular mesangial cells

Stimulate erythrocyte production

peptide

Follicle-stimulating hormone

FSH

anterior pituitary

gonadotrope

cAMP

In female: stimulates maturation of Graafian follicles in ovary.

In male: spermatogenesis, enhances production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes

peptide

Gastrin

GRP

stomach, duodenum

G cell

Secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells

peptide

Ghrelin

stomach

P/D1 cell

Stimulate appetite,

secretion of growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland

peptide

Glucagon

GCG

pancreas

alpha cells

cAMP

glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver

increases blood glucose level

peptide

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

GnRH

hypothalamus

IP3

Release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary.

peptide

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

GHRH

hypothalamus

IP3

Release GH from anterior pituitary

peptide

Human chorionic gonadotropin

hCG

placenta

syncytiotrophoblast cells

cAMP

promote maintenance of corpus luteum during beginning of pregnancy

Inhibit immune response, towards the human embryo.

peptide

Human placental lactogen

HPL

placenta

increase production of insulin and IGF-1

increase insulin resistance and carbohydrate intolerance

peptide

Growth hormone

GH or hGH

anterior pituitary

somatotropes

stimulates growth and cell reproduction

Release Insulin-like growth factor 1 from liver

peptide

Inhibin

testes, ovary, fetus

Sertoli cells of testes
granulosa cells of ovary
trophoblasts in fetus

anterior pituitary

Inhibit production of FSH

peptide

Insulin

INS

pancreas

beta cells

tyrosine kinase

Intake of glucose, glycogenesis and glycolysis in liver and muscle from blood

intake of lipids and synthesis of triglycerides in adipocytes Other anabolic effects

peptide

Insulin-like growth factor (or somatomedin)

IGF

liver

Hepatocytes

tyrosine kinase

insulin-like effects

regulate cell growth and development

peptide

Leptin

LEP

adipose tissue

decrease of appetite and increase of metabolism.

peptide

Luteinizing hormone

LH

anterior pituitary

gonadotropes

cAMP

In female: ovulation

In male: stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone

peptide

Melanocyte stimulating hormone

MSH or α-MSH

anterior pituitary/pars intermedia

Melanotroph

cAMP

melanogenesis by melanocytes in skin and hair

peptide

Orexin

hypothalamus

wakefulness and increased energy expenditure, increased appetite

peptide

Oxytocin

OXT

posterior pituitary

Magnocellular neurosecretory cells

IP3

release breast milk

Contraction of cervix and vagina Involved in orgasm, trust between people.[1] and circadian homeostasis (body temperature, activity level, wakefulness) [2].

peptide

Parathyroid hormone

PTH

parathyroid gland

parathyroid chief cell

cAMP

increase blood Ca2+: *indirectly stimulate osteoclasts

(Slightly) decrease blood phosphate:

  • (decreased reuptake in kidney but increased uptake from bones
  • activate vitamin D)

peptide

Prolactin

PRL

anterior pituitary, uterus

lactotrophs of anterior pituitary
Decidual cells of uterus

milk production in mammary glands
sexual gratification after sexual acts

peptide

Relaxin

RLN

uterus

Decidual cells

Unclear in humans

peptide

Secretin

SCT

duodenum

S cell

Secretion of bicarbonate from liver, pancreas and duodenal Brunner's glands

Enhances effects of cholecystokinin Stops production of gastric juice

peptide

Somatostatin

SRIF

hypothalamus, islets of Langerhans, gastrointestinal system

delta cells in islets
Neuroendocrince cells of the Periventricular nucleus in hypothalamus

Inhibit release of GH and TRH from anterior pituitary
Suppress release of gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin, motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), enteroglucagon in gastrointestinal system
Lowers rate of gastric emptying

Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine [3]
Inhibit release of insulin from beta cells [4]
Inhibit release of glucagon from alpha cells [4]
Suppress the exocrine secretory action of pancreas.

peptide

Thrombopoietin

TPO

liver, kidney, striated muscle

Myocytes

megakaryocytes

produce platelets[5]

peptide

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (or thyrotropin)

TSH

anterior pituitary

thyrotropes

cAMP

thyroid gland

secrete thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

peptide

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TRH

hypothalamus

Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons

IP3

anterior pituitary

Release thyroid-stimulating hormone (primarily)
Stimulate prolactin release

steroid - glu.

Cortisol

adrenal cortex (zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells)

direct

Stimulation of gluconeogenesis

Inhibition of glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues Stimulation of fat breakdown in adipose tissue anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive

steroid - min.

Aldosterone

adrenal cortex (zona glomerulosa)

direct

Increase blood volume by reabsorption of sodium in kidneys (primarily)

Potassium and H+ secretion in kidney.

steroid - sex (and)

Testosterone

testes

Leydig cells

direct

libido, Anabolic: growth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density, growth and strength,

Virilizing: maturation of sex organs, formation of scrotum, deepening of voice, growth of beard and axillary hair.

steroid - sex (and)

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEA

testes, ovary, kidney

Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis cells of kidney
theca cells of ovary
Leydig cellss of testes

direct

Virilization, anabolic

steroid - sex (and)

Androstenedione

adrenal glands, gonads

direct

Substrate for estrogen

steroid - sex (and)

Dihydrotestosterone

DHT

multiple

direct

steroid - sex (est)

Estradiol

E2

females: ovary, males testes

females: granulosa cells, males: Sertoli cell

direct

Females:

Structural:

Protein synthesis:

  • increase hepatic production of binding proteins

Coagulation:

Increase HDL, triglyceride, height growth Decrease LDL, fat deposition Fluid balance:

Gastrointestinal tract:

  • reduce bowel motility
  • increase cholesterol in bile

Melanin:

Cancer: support hormone-sensitive breast cancers [6] Suppression of production in the body of estrogen is a treatment for these cancers.

Lung function:

Males: Prevent apoptosis of germ cells[8]

steroid - sex (est)

Estrone

ovary

granulosa cells, Adipocytes

direct

steroid - sex (est)

Estriol

E3

placenta

syncytiotrophoblast

direct

steroid - sex (pro)

Progesterone

ovary, adrenal glands, placenta (when pregnant)

Granulosa cells theca cells of ovary

direct

Support pregnancy[9]:

Convert endometrium to secretory stage Make cervical mucus permeable to sperm. Inhibit immune response, e.g. towards the human embryo. Decrease uterine smooth muscle contractility[9] Inhibit lactation Inhibit onset of labor. Support fetal production of adrenal mineralo- and glucosteroids.

Other: Raise epidermal growth factor-1 levels Increase core temperature during ovulation[10] Reduce spasm and relax smooth muscle (widen bronchi and regulate mucus) Antiinflammatory Reduce gall-bladder activity[11] Normalize blood clotting and vascular tone, zinc and copper levels, cell oxygen levels, and use of fat stores for energy. Assist in thyroid function and bone growth by osteoblasts Relsilience in bone, teeth, gums, joint, tendon, ligament and skin Healing by regulating collagen Nerve function and healing by regulating myelin Prevent endometrial cancer by regulating effects of estrogen.

sterol

Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3)

skin/proximal tubule of kidneys

direct

Active form of vitamin D3

Increase absorption of calcium and phosphate from gastrointestinal tract and kidneys inhibit release of PTH

sterol

Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3)

skin/proximal tubule of kidneys

direct

Inactive form of vitamin D3

eicosanoid

Prostaglandins

PG

seminal vesicle

eicosanoid

Leukotrienes

LT

white blood cells

eicosanoid

Prostacyclin

PGI2

endothelium

eicosanoid

Thromboxane

TXA2

platelets

peptide

Prolactin releasing hormone

PRH

hypothalamus

Release prolactin from anterior pituitary

peptide

Lipotropin

PRH

anterior pituitary

Corticotropes

lipolysis and steroidogenesis,
stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin

peptide

Brain natriuretic peptide

BNP

heart

Cardiac myocytes

(To a minor degree than ANP) reduce blood pressure by:

reducing systemic vascular resistance, reducing blood water, sodium and fats

peptide

Neuropeptide Y

NPY

Stomach

increased food intake and decreased physical activity

amine - histidine

Histamine

Stomach

ECL cells

stimulate gastric acid secretion

Endothelin

Stomach

X cells

Smooth muscle contraction of stomach [12]

peptide

Pancreatic polypeptide

Pancreas

PP cells

self regulate the pancreas secretion activities (endocrine and exocrine), it also effects on hepatic glycogen levels and gastrointestinal secretions.

peptide

Renin

Kidney

Juxtaglomerular cells

Activates the renin-angiotensin system by producing angiotensin I of angiotensinogen

peptide

Enkephalin

Kidney

Chromaffin cells

Regulate pain

 

A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. In essence, it is a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another. All multicellular organisms produce hormones; plant hormones are also called phytohormones. Hormones in animals are often transported in the blood. Cells respond to a hormone when they express a specific receptor for that hormone. The hormone binds to the receptor protein, resulting in the activation of a signal transduction mechanism that ultimately leads to cell type-specific responses.

Endocrine hormone molecules are secreted (released) directly into the bloodstream, whereas exocrine hormones (or ectohormones) are secreted directly into a duct, and, from the duct, they flow either into the bloodstream or from cell to cell by diffusion in a process known as paracrine signalling.

Recently it has been found that a variety of exogenous modern chemical compounds have hormone-like effects on both humans and wildlife. Their interference with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body can change the homeostasis, reproduction, development, and/or behavior the same as endogenous produced hormones."[1]


Hormones as signals

Hormonal signaling involves the following:[citation needed]

  1. Biosynthesis of a particular hormone in a particular tissue
  2. Storage and secretion of the hormone
  3. Transport of the hormone to the target cell(s)
  4. Recognition of the hormone by an associated cell membrane or intracellular receptor protein
  5. Relay and amplification of the received hormonal signal via a signal transduction process: This then leads to a cellular response. The reaction of the target cells may then be recognized by the original hormone-producing cells, leading to a down-regulation in hormone production. This is an example of a homeostatic negative feedback loop.
  6. Degradation of the hormone.

Hormone cells are typically of a specialized cell type, residing within a particular endocrine gland, such as thyroid gland, ovaries, and testes. Hormones exit their cell of origin via exocytosis or another means of membrane transport. The hierarchical model is an oversimplification of the hormonal signaling process. Cellular recipients of a particular hormonal signal may be one of several cell types that reside within a number of different tissues, as is the case for insulin, which triggers a diverse range of systemic physiological effects. Different tissue types may also respond differently to the same hormonal signal. Because of this, hormonal signaling is elaborate and hard to dissect.[citation needed]

Interactions with receptors

Most hormones initiate a cellular response by initially combining with either a specific intracellular or cell membrane associated receptor protein. A cell may have several different receptors that recognize the same hormone and activate different signal transduction pathways, or a cell may have several different receptors that recognize different hormones and activate the same biochemical pathway.

For many hormones, including most protein hormones, the receptor is membrane-associated and embedded in the plasma membrane at the surface of the cell. The interaction of hormone and receptor typically triggers a cascade of secondary effects within the cytoplasm of the cell, often involving phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of various other cytoplasmic proteins, changes in ion channel permeability, or increased concentrations of intracellular molecules that may act as secondary messengers (e.g., cyclic AMP). Some protein hormones also interact with intracellular receptors located in the cytoplasm or nucleus by an intracrine mechanism.

For hormones such as steroid or thyroid hormones, their receptors are located intracellularly within the cytoplasm of their target cell. To bind their receptors, these hormones must cross the cell membrane. They can do so because they are lipid-soluble. The combined hormone-receptor complex then moves across the nuclear membrane into the nucleus of the cell, where it binds to specific DNA sequences, effectively amplifying or suppressing the action of certain genes, and affecting protein synthesis.[2] However, it has been shown that not all steroid receptors are located intracellularly. some are associated with the plasma membrane.[3]

An important consideration, dictating the level at which cellular signal transduction pathways are activated in response to a hormonal signal, is the effective concentration of hormone-receptor complexes that are formed. Hormone-receptor complex concentrations are effectively determined by three factors:

  1. The number of hormone molecules available for complex formation
  2. The number of receptor molecules available for complex formation
  3. The binding affinity between hormone and receptor.

The number of hormone molecules available for complex formation is usually the key factor in determining the level at which signal transduction pathways are activated, the number of hormone molecules available being determined by the concentration of circulating hormone, which is in turn influenced by the level and rate at which they are secreted by biosynthetic cells. The number of receptors at the cell surface of the receiving cell can also be varied, as can the affinity between the hormone and its receptor.

Physiology of hormones

Most cells are capable of producing one or more molecules, which act as signaling molecules to other cells, altering their growth, function, or metabolism. The classical hormones produced by cells in the endocrine glands mentioned so far in this article are cellular products, specialized to serve as regulators at the overall organism level. However, they may also exert their effects solely within the tissue in which they are produced and originally released.

The rate of hormone biosynthesis and secretion is often regulated by a homeostatic negative feedback control mechanism. Such a mechanism depends on factors that influence the metabolism and excretion of hormones. Thus, higher hormone concentration alone cannot trigger the negative feedback mechanism. Negative feedback must be triggered by overproduction of an "effect" of the hormone.

Hormone secretion can be stimulated and inhibited by:

  • Other hormones (stimulating- or releasing -hormones)
  • Plasma concentrations of ions or nutrients, as well as binding globulins
  • Neurons and mental activity
  • Environmental changes, e.g., of light or temperature

One special group of hormones is the tropic hormones that stimulate the hormone production of other endocrine glands. For example, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) causes growth and increased activity of another endocrine gland, the thyroid, which increases output of thyroid hormones.

A recently identified class of hormones is that of the "hunger hormones" - ghrelin, orexin, and PYY 3-36 - and "satiety hormones" - e.g., cholecystokinin, leptin, nesfatin-1, obestatin.

To release active hormones quickly into the circulation, hormone biosynthetic cells may produce and store biologically inactive hormones in the form of pre- or prohormones. These can then be quickly converted into their active hormone form in response to a particular stimulus.

Effects of hormones

Hormones have the following effects on the body:

A hormone may also regulate the production and release of other hormones. Hormone signals control the internal environment of the body through homeostasis.

Chemical classes of hormones

Vertebrate hormones fall into three chemical classes:

Pharmacology

Many hormones and their analogues are used as medication. The most commonly prescribed hormones are estrogens and progestagens (as methods of hormonal contraception and as HRT), thyroxine (as levothyroxine, for hypothyroidism) and steroids (for autoimmune diseases and several respiratory disorders). Insulin is used by many diabetics. Local preparations for use in otolaryngology often contain pharmacologic equivalents of adrenaline, while steroid and vitamin D creams are used extensively in dermatological practice.

A "pharmacologic dose" of a hormone is a medical usage referring to an amount of a hormone far greater than naturally occurs in a healthy body. The effects of pharmacologic doses of hormones may be different from responses to naturally occurring amounts and may be therapeutically useful. An example is the ability of pharmacologic doses of glucocorticoid to suppress inflammation.

Important human hormones:  List of human hormones

See also---Endocrinology--Endocrine system--Neuroendocrinology--Plant hormones or plant growth regulators--Autocrine signaling---Paracrine signaling--Intracrine--Cytokine--Growth factor--Hormone disruptor