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From wikipedia & other reliable sources ( Poets, Writers, Thinkers, Researchers, Free Lancers, Philosophers, Theologists, Scientists, Orators, Sociologists and Photographers +Artists-Musicians & etc.) we can learn as follows :
''Around the world the term physician refers to a specialist in internal medicine or one of its many sub-specialties (especially as opposed to a specialist in surgery). This meaning of physician conveys a sense of expertise in treatment by drugs or medications, rather than by the procedures of surgeons.
This term is at least nine hundred years old in English: physicians and surgeons were once members of separate professions, and traditionally were rivals. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, third edition, gives a Middle English quotation making this contrast, from as early as 1400: "O Lord, whi is it so greet difference betwixe a cirugian and a physician."
Henry VIII granted a charter to the London Royal College of Physicians in 1518. It was not until 1540 that he granted the Company of Barber-Surgeons (ancestor of the Royal College of Surgeons) its separate charter. In the same year, the English monarch established the Regius Professorship of Physic at the University of Cambridge. Newer universities would probably describe such an academic as a professor of internal medicine. Hence, in the 16th century, physic meant roughly what internal medicine does now.
Currently, a specialist physician in the United States may be described as an internist. Another term, hospitalist, was introduced in 1996, to describe US specialists in internal medicine who work largely or exclusively in hospitals. Such 'hospitalists' now make up about 19% of all US general internists, who are often called general physicians in Commonwealth countries.
This original use, as distinct from surgeon, is common in most of the world including the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries (such as Australia, Bangladesh, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Zimbabwe), as well as in places as diverse as Brazil, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Ireland, and Taiwan. In such places, the more general English terms doctor or medical practitioner are prevalent, describing any practitioner of medicine (whom an American would likely call a physician, in the broad sense). In Commonwealth countries, specialist pediatricians and geriatricians are also described as specialist physicians who have sub-specialized by age of patient rather than by organ system''.
''Medical specialties can be classified along several axes. These are:
- Surgical or internal medicine
- Age range of patients
- Diagnostic or therapeutic
- Organ-based or technique-based
Throughout history, the most important has been the division into surgical and internal medicine specialties. The surgical specialties are those in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques. The internal medicine specialties are the specialties in which the main diagnosis and treatment is never major surgery. In some countries, anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves.
Many specialties are organ-based. Many symptoms and diseases come from a particular organ. Others are based mainly around a set of techniques, such as radiology, which was originally based around X-rays.
The age range of patients seen by any given specialist can be quite variable. Paediatricians handle most complaints and diseases in children that do not require surgery, and there are several subspecialties (formally or informally) in paediatrics that mimic the organ-based specialties in adults. Paediatric surgery may or may not be a separate specialty that handles some kinds of surgical complaints in children.
A further subdivision is the diagnostic versus therapeutic specialties. While the diagnostic process is of great importance in all specialties, some specialists perform mainly or only diagnostic examinations, such as pathology, clinical neurophysiology, and radiology. This line is becoming somewhat blurred with interventional radiology, an evolving field that uses image expertise to perform minimally invasive procedures.''
Specialties that are common worldwide
|Specialty||May be subspecialty of||Age range
|Diagnostic (D) or
|Surgical (S) or
internal medicine (I)
or technique-based (T)
|Allergy and immunology||Internal medicine
|Aerospace medicine||Family Medicine||All||Both||Neither||Both|
|Cardiothoracic surgery||General surgery||Adults||T||S||O|
|Child and adolescent psychiatry||Psychiatry||Pediatric||T||I||T|
|Colorectal surgery||General Surgery||All||Both||S||O|
|Emergency medicine||Family Medicine||All||Both||Both||Both|
|General surgical oncology||General surgery||Adults||T||S||T|
|Gynecologic oncology||Obstetrics and gynecology||All||T||S||O|
|Infectious disease||Internal medicine
|Intensive care medicine||Anesthesiology
|Maternal-fetal medicine||Obstetrics and gynecology||Adults||T||S||Both|
|Medical biochemistry||Internal medicine||All||D||I||Neither|
|Medical oncology||Internal medicine||Adults||D||I||Neither|
|Nuclear medicine (Nucleology)||None||All||Both||I||T|
|Obstetrics and gynecology||Family medicine||All||T||S||O|
|Occupational medicine||Family medicine
|Oral and maxillofacial surgery||None||All||T||S||O|
|Palliative care||Family Medicine
|Pediatric allergy and immunology||Pediatrics||Pediatric||T||I||O|
|Pediatric emergency medicine||Pediatrics||Pediatric||Both||Both||Both|
|Pediatric hematology and oncology||Pediatrics||Pediatric||T||I||O|
|Pediatric infectious disease||Pediatrics||Pediatric||T||I||O|
|Pediatric respiratory medicine||Pediatrics||Pediatric||T||I||O|
|Pediatric surgery||General surgery||Pediatric||T||S||O|
|Physical medicine and rehabilitation||None||All||T||I||Multidisciplinary|
|Plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery||General surgery||All||T||S||O|
|Public health||Family medicine||All||Neither||Neither||T|
|Reproductive endocrinology and infertility||Obstetrics and gynecology||Adults||T||S||T|
|Pulmunology or Respiratory medicine||Internal medicine||Adults||T||I||O|
|Sports medicine||Family medicine||All||Both||Neither||Multidisciplinary|
|Thoracic surgery||General surgery||Adults||T||S||T|
|Vascular surgery||General surgery||All||T||S||O''|
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