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From wikipedia & other reliable sources ( Poets, Writers, Thinkers, Researchers, Free Lancers, Philosophers, Theologists, Scientists, Orators, Sociologists and Photographers +Artists-Musicians & etc.) we can learn as follows : 

''Around the world the term physician refers to a specialist in internal medicine or one of its many sub-specialties (especially as opposed to a specialist in surgery). This meaning of physician conveys a sense of expertise in treatment by drugs or medications, rather than by the procedures of surgeons.[4]

This term is at least nine hundred years old in English: physicians and surgeons were once members of separate professions, and traditionally were rivals. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, third edition, gives a Middle English quotation making this contrast, from as early as 1400: "O Lord, whi is it so greet difference betwixe a cirugian and a physician."[5]

Henry VIII granted a charter to the London Royal College of Physicians in 1518. It was not until 1540 that he granted the Company of Barber-Surgeons (ancestor of the Royal College of Surgeons) its separate charter. In the same year, the English monarch established the Regius Professorship of Physic at the University of Cambridge.[6] Newer universities would probably describe such an academic as a professor of internal medicine. Hence, in the 16th century, physic meant roughly what internal medicine does now.

Currently, a specialist physician in the United States may be described as an internist. Another term, hospitalist, was introduced in 1996,[7] to describe US specialists in internal medicine who work largely or exclusively in hospitals. Such 'hospitalists' now make up about 19% of all US general internists,[8] who are often called general physicians in Commonwealth countries.

This original use, as distinct from surgeon, is common in most of the world including the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries (such as AustraliaBangladeshIndiaNew ZealandPakistanSouth AfricaSri Lanka, and Zimbabwe), as well as in places as diverse as BrazilHong KongIndonesiaJapanIreland, and Taiwan. In such places, the more general English terms doctor or medical practitioner are prevalent, describing any practitioner of medicine (whom an American would likely call a physician, in the broad sense).[9] In Commonwealth countries, specialist pediatricians and geriatricians are also described as specialist physicians who have sub-specialized by age of patient rather than by organ system''.

''Medical specialties can be classified along several axes. These are:

  • Surgical or internal medicine
  • Age range of patients
  • Diagnostic or therapeutic
  • Organ-based or technique-based

Throughout history, the most important has been the division into surgical and internal medicine specialties. The surgical specialties are those in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques. The internal medicine specialties are the specialties in which the main diagnosis and treatment is never major surgery. In some countries, anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves.

Many specialties are organ-based. Many symptoms and diseases come from a particular organ. Others are based mainly around a set of techniques, such as radiology, which was originally based around X-rays.

The age range of patients seen by any given specialist can be quite variable. Paediatricians handle most complaints and diseases in children that do not require surgery, and there are several subspecialties (formally or informally) in paediatrics that mimic the organ-based specialties in adults. Paediatric surgery may or may not be a separate specialty that handles some kinds of surgical complaints in children.

A further subdivision is the diagnostic versus therapeutic specialties. While the diagnostic process is of great importance in all specialties, some specialists perform mainly or only diagnostic examinations, such as pathologyclinical neurophysiology, and radiology. This line is becoming somewhat blurred with interventional radiology, an evolving field that uses image expertise to perform minimally invasive procedures.''

Specialties that are common worldwide[edit]

Specialty May be subspecialty of Age range
of patients
Diagnostic (D) or
therapeutic (T)
Surgical (S) or
internal medicine (I)
Organ-based (O)
or technique-based (T)
Allergy and immunology Internal medicine
All Both I O
Adolescent medicine Pediatrics
Family medicine
Pediatric Both I T
Anesthesiology None All T Both Both
Aerospace medicine Family Medicine All Both Neither Both
Bariatrics Several All Both Both Both
Cardiology Internal medicine Adults T I O
Cardiothoracic surgery General surgery Adults T S O
Child and adolescent psychiatry Psychiatry Pediatric T I T
Clinical neurophysiology Neurology All D I Both
Colorectal surgery General Surgery All Both S O
Dermatology None All T I O
Developmental pediatrics Pediatrics Pediatric T I Neither
Emergency medicine Family Medicine All Both Both Both
Endocrinology Internal medicine Adults T I O
Family Medicine None All Both Both Multidisciplinary
Forensic pathology Pathology All D Neither T
Forensic psychiatry Psychiatry All D I T
Gastroenterology Internal medicine Adults T I O
General surgery None Adults T S T
General surgical oncology General surgery Adults T S T
Geriatrics Family medicine
Internal medicine
Geriatric T I Multidisciplinary
Geriatric psychiatry Geriatrics
Geriatric T I Neither
Gynecologic oncology Obstetrics and gynecology All T S O
Hematology Internal medicine
Adults D I Neither
Hematologic pathology Hematology
All D Neither T
Infectious disease Internal medicine
All Both I Neither
Internal medicine None Adults T I Neither
Interventional radiology Radiology All Both - Multidisciplinary
Intensive care medicine Anesthesiology
Emergency medicine
Internal medicine
All T Both Both
Maternal-fetal medicine Obstetrics and gynecology Adults T S Both
Medical biochemistry Internal medicine All D I Neither
Medical genetics None All D I Neither
Medical oncology Internal medicine Adults D I Neither
Neonatology Pediatrics Neonatal T I Neither
Nephrology Internal medicine All T I O
Neurology Internal medicine All Both I O
Neuropathology Pathology All D Neither T
Neurosurgery None All T S O
Nuclear medicine (Nucleology) None All Both I T
Obstetrics and gynecology Family medicine All T S O
Occupational medicine Family medicine
Internal medicine
Adults T I Multidisciplinary
Ophthalmology None All T S O
Orthopedic surgery None All T S O
Oral and maxillofacial surgery None All T S O
Otorhinolaryngology None All T S O
Palliative care Family Medicine
Internal medicine
All Both Neither Neither
Pathology None All D Neither T
Pediatrics None Pediatric T I Neither
Pediatric allergy and immunology Pediatrics Pediatric T I O
Pediatric cardiology Pediatrics Pediatric T I O
Pediatric emergency medicine Pediatrics Pediatric Both Both Both
Pediatric endocrinology Pediatrics Pediatric T I O
Pediatric gastroenterology Pediatrics Pediatric T I O
Pediatric hematology and oncology Pediatrics Pediatric T I O
Pediatric infectious disease Pediatrics Pediatric T I O
Pediatric nephrology Pediatrics Pediatric T I O
Pediatric respiratory medicine Pediatrics Pediatric T I O
Pediatric rheumatology Pediatrics Pediatric T I O
Pediatric surgery General surgery Pediatric T S O
Physical medicine and rehabilitation None All T I Multidisciplinary
Plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery General surgery All T S O
Psychiatry Family medicine All Both I T
Public health Family medicine All Neither Neither T
Radiation oncology None All T Neither T
Radiology None All Both I T
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Obstetrics and gynecology Adults T S T
Pulmunology or Respiratory medicine Internal medicine Adults T I O
Rheumatology Internal medicine Adults T I Neither
Sports medicine Family medicine All Both Neither Multidisciplinary
Thoracic surgery General surgery Adults T S T
Toxicology Emergency Medicine All Both Neither O
Transfusion Medicine None All Both Neither Both
Neuroradiology Radiology All Both I Both
Urology None All T S O
Vascular surgery General surgery All T S O''

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